Triads of Wales – OCC E-Book Library Content

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Herein you may find the English text of the Triads of Wales.

(You may also find a copy of the more detailed “Ancient laws of Cambria” (book online in PDF) : containing the institutional triads of Dyvnwal Moelmud, the laws of Howel the Good, triadical commentaries, code of education, and the hunting laws of Wales; to which are added, the historical triads of Britain.)

In Haberman’s “Tracing our Ancestors” (book online in PDF) is some great analysis of the Triads of Wales. Here is an excerpt of this analysis:

The Triads referred to here are the national Triads of Wales, which are, according to Matthew Arnold and Professor Max Mueller, “the oldest literature in the oldest living language in Europe.” This “oldest (Celtic) literature” is the “Historic Triads of the Island of Britain,” of which one hundred and sixty are still in existence; they consist of
the poems of the ancient Bards, and convey to us the religion, philosophy, and law of
the early Britons. Like the ancient Vedas of India, they were handed down by oral
tradition; and not until the sixth century A.D. were thy written down, by the bards of
King Arthur’s court. Taliesin and Lynwarch Hen, when the British king reorganized
the “Old Order” on Christian lines, and drew up his rules of the Round Table on the
Druidic principles of loyalty and self-sacrifice to king and country.
It is customary today to speak of the ancient Britons as the Druids; however, this is
incorrect, for the term “Druid” refers only to the priesthood. “The title Druid,” says
Gordon, “in Welsh ‘der wydd,’ is said to be a compound of ‘dar,’ superior, and ‘gwydd,’
priest or inspector. The Irish “Der,’ a Drid, is the absolver and remitter of sins. The
same root is found in the Persian ‘duree,’ a good and holy man, and in the Arabic ‘dere,’
a wise man. The number of Druids was regulated by very strident laws in proportion to
The Druids were organized into a religious order, and as all knowledge, doctrine, and
literature was transmitted only by oral recitation, it required twenty years of study
before a candidate was able to pass the final examinations and was admissible to the
highest order of the land. Besides that, only those candidates were acceptable who
could prove their descent from nine generations of British freemen. Those conditions
naturally restricted membership in the Druidic order to the aristocracy of the country.
The same demands and length of training were required by the order of the Bards or
scholars. Matthew Arnold, famous English poet and critic, states that the Druidic
Order is the oldest religious and educational institution in Europe (and probably in the
world). In Britain the Order numbered forty seats of learning; each seat was a Cyfiaith,
the derivation of “city.”

The derivation of the terms Brith and Brith-am is derived from the Welsh Triads, which speak of the Bryth-Y-Brithan, meaning “Covenanters of the Land of the Covenant.” This is what the ancient Britons called themselves.

The Triads of Wales

1. There were Three Names Given to the Isle of Prydein. Before it was inhabited it was called the sea-girt green land. Later it was called the Honey Island. The people formed a tribe called the Cymry on the Isle of Prydein after Prydein ap Aedd the Great. And no one has any right to it but the tribe of the Cymry for they first took possession, and before this time there were no persons living on it; but it was full of bears, wolves, crocodiles and bison.

2. There were Three Primary Divisions of the Isle of Prydein: Cymmru, Lloegria and Alban. The rank of sovereignty belongs to each of the three under a monarchy and voice of the country. They are governed according to the regulations of Prydein and to the nation of the Cymry belongs the right of establishing the monarchy by the voice of the country and the people, according to rank and primeval right under the protection of such regulation. Royalty ought to exist in every country in the Isle of Prydein and every royalty ought to be under the protection of the voice of the country. Therefore, it is said “the country is more powerful than a lord.”

3. There are Three Pillars of the Social State in the Isle of Prydein. They are the voice of the country, royalty, and judicature, according to the regulation of Prydein.

4. There are Three Pillars of the Nation of the Isle of Prydein. The first was HU the Mighty, who brought the nation of the Cymry first to the Isle of Prydein; and they came from the Summer Country, which is also called Defrobani, the Summerland or Atlantia; and they came over the hazy sea to the Isle of Prydein where they settled. The second was Prydein, who first organized a social state of sovereignty in the land of Prydein; for before that time there was no justice but what was done by favour; nor any law, except that of superior force. The third was Dyvnwal Moelmud, for he first made arrangements respecting the laws, maxims, customs, and privileges of the country and tribe. And by these reasons, they were called the three pillars of the nation of the Cymry.

5. There were three social tribes on the Isle of Prydein. The first was the tribe of Cymry, who came to the Isle of Prydein with HU the Mighty, because he would not possess a country and lands by fighting and pursuit, but by justice and tranquility. The second was a tribe of Lloegrians, who came from Gascony, and they were descended from the tribe of the Cymry. The third were the Brythons, who came from Armorica, and who were descended from the tribe of the Cymry. These were called the three peaceful tribes because they came by mutual consent and tranquility; and these tribes were descended from the primitive tribe of the Cymry, and all three tribes had the same speech.

6. There were three refuge seeking tribes that came to the Island of Prydein and they came under the peace and permission of the tribe of the Cymry, without arms and without opposition. The first was a tribe of Caledonians in the north. The second was the Irish tribe, who dwelled in the highlands of Scotland. The third were the people of Galedin, who came in naked vessels to the Island of Wight, when their country was drowned, where they had land granted them by the tribe of Cymry. They had no privilege of claim in the Island of Prydein, but they had land and protection assigned to them under certain limitations; and it was stipulated that they should not possess the rank of native Cymry until the ninth of their lineal descendants.

7. There were three invading tribes that came to the Island of Prydein and who never departed from it. The first were the Coranians, who came from the country of Pwyl. The second were the Irish Picts, who came to Alban by the North Sea. The third were the Saxons. The Coranians were settled about the River Humber, and the shore of the German Ocean. The Irish Picts are in Alban about the shore of the Sea of Denmark. The Coranians and the Saxons united, and by violence and conquest brought the Loegrians into confederacy with them; and subsequently took the crown of the monarchy from the tribe of the Cymry. There remained none of the Loegrians that did not become Saxons, except those that are found in Cornwall, and the Commot of Carnoban in Deria and Bernicia in this period. In this manner the benevolent tribe of the Cymry, who preserved both their country and their language, lost the sovereignty of the Island of Prydein on account of the treachery of the refuge-seeking tribes, and the pillage of the three invading tribes.

8. There were three invading tribes that came to the Island of Prydein, and who subsequently left it. The first was the Scandinavians, who came here under Urb, with the mighty host, and took away from the island the flower of the tribe of the Cymry. He took away with him 63,000 effective men, and steeds of war. At the end of the third age, the Cymry drove the Scandinavians over the sea into Germany. The second were the troops of Ganval the Irishman, that came into North Wales and settled there for twenty-nine years, until they were driven into the sea by Caswallon, ap Beli and the grandson of Minogan. The third were the Caesareans, or Romans, who continued by violence on this island more than 400 years, when they returned to Italy to oppose the fierce contention of the black invasion; and they did not return again to the Island of Prydein. Because the Cymry marched with them, none were left on the island but women, and little children under nine years of age.

9. There were three treacherous invasions of the Island of Prydein. The first were by the Red Irishmen from Ireland, who came to Alban; the second were the Scandinavians; and the third were the Saxons. These last came to this island in peace and by the permission of the tribe of the Cymry, and in the protection of the Goddess and her truth, as well as in the protection of the country and of the tribe; and by treachery and mischief they opposed the tribe of the Cymry, and were able to wrest from them sovereign power of the Island of Prydein, and they mutually confederated themselves in Lloegria and Alban, where they still reside. This happened in the age of Vortigern.

10. There were three disappearances by loss in the Isle of Prydein. The first were Gavran and his men, who went in search of the Green Islands of the floods, and were never heard of again. The second were Merddin, the bard of Emrys, and his nine attendant bards, who went to sea in a house of glass, and the place where they went is unknown. The third was Madog, ap Owain, king of North Wales, who went to sea with 300 persons in 10 ships, but the place to which they went is unknown.

11. There were three oppressions that came upon the Island of Prydein, but which were brought to a termination. First the oppression of the Horse of Malaen, which is called the Oppression of the first of May; second, was the oppression of the Dragon of Prydein; and third, the oppression of the half-apparent man. That is, the first was from beyond the seas; the second was from the madness of the country and the nation under the presence of the violence and lawlessness of princes; but Dyvnwal Moelmud destroyed it, by forming just regulations between society and society, prince and neighboring prince, and country and neighboring country; and the third was in the town of Belli ap Manogan, which was a treacherous conspiracy but he extinguished it.

12. There were three frightful plagues on the Island of Prydein. First, the plague that arose from the corpses of the Irishmen who were slaughtered in Manuba, after they had oppressed northern Wales for the space of twenty-nine years. Second, the infection of the Yellow Plague of Rhoss, on account of the corpses which were slain there, and if anyone went within reach of the effluvia he died immediately. The third was the sickness of the bloody sweat, on account of the corn having been destroyed by wet weather in the time of the Norman invasion by William the Bastard.

13. There were three awful events in the Island of Prydein. The first was a bursting of the lake of floods, and the rushing of an inundation over all the lands, until all persons were destroyed, except Dwyvan and Dwyvach, who escaped in an open vessel; and from them the Island of Prydein was peopled. The second was a trembling of the fiery torrent, until the earth was rent to the abyss, and the greatest part of all life was destroyed. The third was the hot summer, when the trees and plants took fire by the burning heat of the sun, and many people and animals, various kinds of birds, vermin, trees and plants, were entirely destroyed.

14. There were three combined expeditions that went from the Island of Prydein. The first was that which went with Ur, ap Aaron, the Bellipotent of Scandinavia; and he came to this island in the time of Gadial ap Aaron, to solicit aid, under a condition that should not obtain from every principle fortress, a greater number than he shall bring to it. To the first fortress he only came himself with a servant Mathata Vawr, and from there he obtained two, from the second four, from the third eight, the next sixteen, and thus in like proportion from every other fortress, until that in the last the number could not be procured throughout the whole island. He took with him 63,000, and he could not obtain a greater number of effective men in all the island, and none but children and old men were left behind. And Ur, ap Aaron the Bellipotent was the most complete levier that ever existed. It was through inadvertency that the tribe of the Cymry gave him this permission under the irrevocable stipulation; and in consequence of this, the Coranians found an opportunity to make an easy invasion of this Island. Of the men who went, none ever returned, nor any of their progeny, or descendants. They went on a warlike expedition as far as the Sea of Greece, and remaining there in the land of Galas and Avena unto this day, they have become Greeks. The second combined expedition was conducted by Caswallawn ap Beli, the grandson of Manogan, and Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, the sons of Lliaws, ap Nwyvre and Arianrhod, ab Beli, their mother. Their origin was from the border declivity of Galedin and Siluria, and from the combined tribes of the Boulognese; and their numbers were three score and 1,000. They marched, with their Uncle Caswallawn, after the Caesareans, unto the land of the Gauls of Armorica, who were descended from the primitive stock of the Cymry. And none of them nor of their progeny, returned to this island. For they settled in Gascony among the Caesareans, where they are at present; and it was in revenge of this expedition that the Caesareans came first into this island. The third combined expedition was marched out of this island by Elen Belipotent and Cynan, her brother, lord of Meiriadog, to Armorica, where they obtained lands, power and sovereignty by the Emperor Maximus for supporting him against the Romans. These men were from the land of Meiriadog, Siluria, and from the land of Gwyr and Gorwennydd; and none of them returned again, but settled there in Ystre Gyvaelwg, where they formed a commonwealth. On account of this expedition, the tribe of Cymry became so deficient in armed men, that the Irish Picts invaded them; and therefore Vortigern was forced to invite the Saxons to expel the invasion. And the Saxons, observing the weakness of the Cymry, treacherously turned their arms against them, and by combining with the Irish Picts and other traitorous, they took possession of the land of the Cymry, and also their privileges and their crown. These three combined expeditions are called the Three Mighty Presumptions on the tribe of Cymry, and also the three Silver Armies, because they took away from the island all gold and silver they could obtain by deceit, artifice, and injustice, besides what they acquired by right and consent. They are also called the three unwise armaments, because they weakened the island so much, that an opportunity was given for the three mighty invasions; namely the Coranians, the Caesareans, and the Saxons.

15. There were three mighty invasions of the Island of Prydein that united in one, and by this means the invaders took from the Cymry their rank, their crown and their lands. The first was that of the Corinians, who united with the Caesareans until they became one. The second of the three were the Caesareans. The third were the Saxons, who united with the two others against the Cymry. And the Goddess permitted this for the purpose of chastising the Cymry for their three mighty presumptions, because they were carried into effect by injustice.

16. There were three primary tribes of the Cymry: The Gwenitians, or the Salerians; the *XXX*, including both the north Walians and Powysinians; and the tribe of Pendaran of Dyved, including the people of Pembrokeshire, Gowar, and Cardiganshire. To each of these belongs a classical dialect of the Welsh language.

17. There were three monarchs by the verdict of the Island of Prydein. The first was Caswallawn, ap Lludd, ap Beli, ap Manogan; the second of Caradog, ap Bran, ap Llyr, ap LLediath; and the third was Owain, ap Maximus. That is, sovereignty was conferred upon them by the verdict of the country and the nation, when they were not elders.

18. There were three holy families in the Island of Prydein. The first was the family of Bran the Blessed, ap Llyr, Llediath; for Bran was the first who brought the faith of the Goddess to this island from Atlantia. He was imprisoned through the treachery of Boadicea, ab Mandubratius, ap Lludd. The second was the family of Cynedda Wledig, who first gave land and privilege to the Goddess and the saints in the Island of Prydein. The third was Brychan of Brecknockshire, who educated his children and grandchildren in learning and generosity, that they might be able to share the faith in the Goddess with the Cymry, where they were without faith.

19. There were three benignant guests of the Island of Prydein: David ap Cynan, Padarn, and Teilaw. They were so called because they went as guests into the houses of the nobles, the yeomen, the native and the bondman, without accepting either gift or reward, food or drink; but they taught the faith in the Goddess to everyone without pay, or thanks, and to the poor and the destitute, they gave of their gold and their silver, their clothes and their provisions.

20. There were three treacherous meetings on the Island of Prydein. First, there was the meeting of Mandubratius, ap LLudd, and the traitors with him, who gave place for the landing of the Romans on the narrow green point, and not more; and the consequences of which was, the gaining of the Isle by the Romans. The second was the meeting of the Cymry nobles and Saxon claimants upon Salisbury plain, where the plot of the long knives took place through the treachery of Vortigern, whereby his council, in league with the Saxons, nearly all the Cymry nobility were slain. Third, the meeting of Medrawd and Iddawg Corn Prydein with their men of Nanhwynian, where they entered into a conspiracy against Arthur, and by this means strengthened the Saxon cause on the Isle of Prydein.

21. There were three errant traitors of the Island of Prydein. First, there was Mandubratius, ap Lludd, ap Beli the Great, who invited Julius Caesar and the Romans into this island, and caused the invasion of the Romans. That is, he and his men gave themselves as guides for the Romans and received a treasure of gold and silver from them every year. In consequence of this, the men of this island were compelled to pay 3,000 pieces of silver every year as a tribute to the Romans until the time of Olwain ap Maximus, who refused to pay the tribute. And under pretense of being content, the Romans drew from the Island of Prydein the most effective men who were capable of becoming warriors, and marched them to Aravia and other far countries, from which they never returned. The Romans who were in Britain Prydein went into Italy, and left only women and little children behind them; and, therefore, the Prydeinians were so weakened, that they were not able to oppose invasion and conquest for want of men and strength. The second was Vortigern, who murdered Constantine the Blessed, seized the crown of the island by violence and lawlessness, first invited the Saxons into the island as his defenders, married Alis Ronwen, ab Hengist, and gave the crown of Prydein to the son he had by her, whose name was Gotta; and on this account, the kings of London were called children of Alis. Thus, on account of Vortigern, the Cymry lost their lands, their rank and their crown in Lloegria. The third was Medrawd ap Llew, ap Cynvarch: for when Arthur left the government of the Island of Prydein in his custody, whilst he marched against the Roman Emperor, Medrawd took the crown from Arthur by usurpation and seduction; and in order to keep it, he confederated with the Saxons; and, on this account, the Cymry lost the crown of LLoegria and the sovereignty of the Island of Prydein.

22. The three secret treasons of the Island of Prydein: First, the betraying of Caradog, ap Bran, by Boadicea, daughter of Mandubratius, ap Lludd, and delivering him up as a captive to the Romans. Second, the betraying of Arthur by Iddawg Corn Prydein, who divulged his designs. And third, the betraying of Prince Llewellyn, ap Grufudd, by Madog Min. By these three treacheries the Cymry were completely subdued; and nothing but treachery could have overcome them.

23. The three heroic sovereigns of the Island of Prydein: Cunovelinus, Ceridog, ap Bran, and Arthur; because they conquered their enemies, and could not be overcome but by treachery and by plotting.

24. The three primary battled princes of the Island of Prydein: Caswallawn ap Beli, Gweirydd ap Cunovelinus, and Caradog, ap Bran, ap Llyr Llediaith.

25. The three accomplished princes of the Island of Prydein: Rhun, ap Maelgwn; Olwain, ap Urien; and Rhuvon the Fair, ap Dewrath Wledig.

26. There were three plebian princes in the Island of Prydein: Gwrgai, ap Gwrien in the north; Cadavael, ap Cynvedw in north Wales; and Hyvaidd, the tall ap St. Bleiddan, in Glenmorgan. That is to say, sovereignty was granted them on account of their heroic actions, and virtuous qualities.

27. The three landed families of the Island of Prydein: the family of Caswallawn with the long hand; the family of Rhiwallon, ap Urien; and the family of Belyn of Lleyn. They were so called, because they were not subjected to either head, or sovereign as it respected the ranks of their families and power, but owed submission only to the voice of the country and the nation.

28. The three golden banded ones of the Island of Prydein: Rhiwallon with the broom hair; Rhun, ap Maelgwn; and Cadwaladyr the Blessed. That is, they were permitted to wear golden bands about their arms, their necks, and their knees, and with these were granted the privilege of royalty in every country and dominion in the Island of Prydein.

29. The three battle knights of the sovereign of the Island of Prydein: Caradog with the brawny arms; Llyr, the Belipotent, and Mael, ap Manwaed, of Arllechwedd. And with reference to these, Arthur composed the following lines: “These are my three battle knights, Mael the Tall, and Llyr the Belipotent, and Caradog the Pillar of the Cymry.” That is to say, they were the bravest heroes of all battle knights, and therefore royalty was granted them, and what they wished of power; and their courtesy was such, that they would do nothing but what was judicious and right, in whatever country they came.

30. The three generous princes of the Island of Prydein: Rhydderch the generous, ap Tudwall Tudglyd; Mordog the generous, ap Servan; and Nudd the Generous, ap Senyllt. Their courteous dispositions were such, that they did not fail to grant anything whatever to any person who solicited it of them, if they had it in their possession, or could obtain it by a gift, loan, or present, whether the applicants were friends or foes, relatives or strangers.

31. The three bloodstained ones of the Island of Prydein: Arthur, Morgan the Greatly Courteous, and Rhun, ap Beli. When they marched to war, no one would stay at home, so greatly were they beloved; and in every war and battle, they were victorious, where there were neither treachery, nor ambush. Hence rose the proverb: “There were three heroes who obtained men wherever they marched: Arthur, Morgan the Greatly Courteous, and Rhun ap Beli; and there were three armies who obtained soldiers wherever they marched; the soldiers of Arthur, the soldiers of Morgan the Greatly Courteous, and the troupes of Rhun, ap Beli.”

32. The three resolute-minded ovates of the Island of Prydein: Greidiawl the Resolute-Minded Ovate, Envael ap Adran, and Tristan, ap Tallwch; for they had the privilege of going wherever they wished in the Island of Prydein without opposition, unless they went unlawfully.

33. The three instructors of slaughter of the Island of Prydein: Grudnew, Henben, and Eidnew. Their principle was, not to retreat from battle and conflict, but upon their biers, after they were unable to move either hand or foot.

34. The three conventional monarchs of the Island of Prydein. The first was Prydein, ap Aedd the Great, when there was established discriminating sovereignty over the Island of Prydein, and its adjacent islands; second, Caradog, ap Bran, when he was elected generalissimo of all the islands of Prydein to oppose the incursions of the Romans; and Olwain, ap Ambrosius, when the Cymry resumed the sovereignty from the Roman emperor according to the rights of the nation. These were called the three conventional sovereigns, because they were raised to the dignity by the conventions of the country and the bordering country, within all the limits of the nation of the Cymry, by holding a convention in every district, Commot and the Hunter and the Island of Prydein and its adjacent islands.

35. The three blessed princes of the Island of Prydein. The first was Bran the Blessed, ap Llyr Llediaith, who first brought the faith of the Goddess to the Cymry where he had been seven years as a hostage for his son Caradog, whom the Romans put in prison after being betrayed through the enticement, deceit and defrauding of Boadicea. Second, Lleirwg, ap Coel, ap Cyllin, and called, LLeuver the Great, who built the first temple in Llandav, which was the first on the Island of Prydein, and who gave the privilege of the country and tribe, with civil, and ecclesiastical rites to those who professed faith and knowledge of the Goddess. The third was Cadwaladyr the Blessed, who gave protection, when it was within his lands and within all his possessions, to those who fled from the infidel and lawless Saxons who wished to murder them.

36. Three system formers of royalty of the Island of Prydein: Prydein ap Aedd the Great, Dyvynwal Moelmud, and Bran ap Llyr Llediaith. That is, their systems were the best systems of royalty, being of the Island of Prydein, and they were judged superior to all of the systems which were formed on the Island of Prydein.

37. The three disgraceful drunkards on the Island of Prydein: First, Ceraint, the drunken king of Siluria, who in drunkenness burned all the corn far and near over all the country, so that a famine for bread arose. Second, Vortigern, who in his drink gave the Island of Thanet to Horsa that he might commit adultery with Rowena his daughter, and who also gave a claim to the son that he had by her to the crown of Lloegria; and added to these treachery and plotting against the Cymry. Third, the drunken Seithynin, ap Seithyn Saida, king of Dimetia, who in his drunkenness left the sea over the hundred of Gwaelod so that all the houses and land which were there, were lost; where before that event 60 fortified towns were reckoned there, superior to all the towns and fortifications in Cymru, with the exception of Caerllion upon Usk. The hundred of Gwaelod was a dominion of Gwydnow Garanihir, king of Cardigan. This event happened in the time of Ambrosius. The people who escaped from the inundation landed in Ardudwy, in the country of Arban, in the mountains of Snowdon, and other places, which had not been inhabited before that period.

38. The three humble princes of the Island of Prydein: Manawyda ap Lleir Lliediaith, after Bran ap Llyr, his brother, was carried into captivity; Llywarch the Aged, ap Elidir, Llydanwyn; and Gwgon the hero, ap Eleuver with the Mighty Retinue. These three were bards; and after they had attached themselves to song, they sought not for dominion and royalty, but no one could debar them from it. On this account, they were called the three humble princes of the Island of Prydein.

39. The three chiefs of Deira and Bernicia: Gall, ap Dysgyvedog, Difedel ap Dysgyvedog; and Ysgavnnel ap Dysgyvedog. These three were the sons of bards, and after they had attached themselves to song, the sovereignty, the sovereignty of Deira and Berniciawere bestowed upon them.

40. The three bards of the Island of Prydein who hinged spears with blood: Tristvardd, ap Urien Rheged; Dygynnelw, the bard of Olwain, ap Urien; and Avanverddig, bard of Cedwallen, ap Cedvan. These three were sons of bards, and they could not be separated.

41. The three supreme servants of the Island of Prydein: Caradog, ap Bran, ap Llyr Lleidiath; Cawrdav, ap Caradog with the Brawny Arm; and Olwain, ap Ambrosius. They were so called because all the men of the Island of Prydein, from the prince to the peasant, became their followers at the need of the country, on account of the invasions and tyranny of the foe. And wherever these three marched to war, there was not a man on the Island of Prydein but who would join their armies, and would not stay at home. And these three were the sons of bards.

42. The three fetter-wearing kings of the Island of Prydein: Morgan the Greatly Courteous, of Glenmorgan; Elystan Glodrydd, between the Wye and the Severn; and Gwaithvoed, King of Cardigan. They were so called because they wore fetters in all their primary functions of royalty in the Island of Prydein instead of frontlets or crowns.

43. The three frontlet-wearing kings of the Island of Prydein: Cadell, King of Dinevor; Anarawd, King of Aberfraw; and Mervin, King of Mathravael. They were also called the three frontlet-wearing princes.

44. The three foreign kings of the Island of Prydein: Gwrddyled of the Conflict; Morien with the beard; and Constantine the Blessed.

45. The three disgraceful traitors who enabled the Saxons to take the crown of Prydein from the Cymry: The first was Gwrgigarwlwyd, who after tasting human flesh in the court of Edlfled, the Saxon king, became so fond of it that he would eat no other but human flesh over. In consequence of this he and his men united with Edlfled, king of the Saxons; and he made secret incursions upon the Cymry, and brought a young male and female whom he daily ate. And all the lawless men of the Cymry flocked to him and the Saxons, for they obtained their full of prey and spoil taken from the natives of this isle. The second was Medrod, who with his men united with the Saxons, that he might secure the kingdom to himself, against Arthur; and in consequence of that treachery many of the LLoegrins became as Saxons. Third was Aeddan, the traitor of the north, who with his men made submission to the power of the Saxons, so that they might be able to support themselves by confusion and pillage under the protection of the Saxons. On account of these three traitors the Cymry lost their land and their crown in Lloegria; and if it had not been for such treason, the Saxons could not have gained the island from the Cymry.

46. The three bards who committed the three beneficial assassinations of the Island of Prydein: The first was Gall, ap Dysgyvedawg, who killed the two brown birds of Gwendolleu, ap Ceidiaw, that had a yoke of gold about him, and that daily devoured two bodies of the Cymry for their dinner and two for their supper. The second was Ysgavnell, ap Dysgyvedawg, who killed Edlfled, King of Lloegria, who required every night two noble maids of the Cymry nation, and violated them, and every morning he killed and devoured them. The third was Difedel, ap Dysgyvedawg, who killed Gwrgi Garwlylwyd, that had married Edlfled’s sister, and committed treachery and murder in conjunction with Edlfled upon the Cymry. And this Gwrgi killed a Cymry male and female every day and devoured them, and on Saturday he killed two males and two females, that he might not kill on Sunday. And these three persons, who performed these beneficial assassinations, were bards.

47. The three infamous assassinations of the Island of Prydein: The assassination of Aneurin of flowing muse, and monarch of the bards, by Eiddin ap Einygan; the assassination of Avaiavaon, ap Taliesin, by Llawgad Trwm Bargawd; and the assassination of Urien, ap XXXX

48. The three infamous axe blows of the Isle of Prydein: the axe-blow of Eiddin, ap Einygan, on the head of Aneurin of the flowing muse; the axe-blow of Cadavael the Wild, on the head of Jago, ap Beli; and the axe-blow upon the head of Golyddan the bard, because of the stroke which he gave Cadwaladyr the Blessed with the palm of his hand.

49. The three fatal slaps of the Isle of Prydein: the slap of Matholwch the Irishman, on Bronwen ab Llyr; the slap which Gwenhwyvach gave Gwenhwyvar, and which caused the battle of Camlan; and the slap which Golyddan the bard gave Cadwaladyr the Blessed.

50. The three frivolous causes of battle on the Isle of Prydein. The first was the battle of Goddeu, which was caused about a bitch, a roe-buck and a lapwing; and in that battle 71,000 men were slain. The second was the action of Arderydd, caused by a birds nest, in which 80,000 Cymry were slain. The third was the battle of Camlan, between Arthur and Mordred, where Arthur was slain with 100,000 of the choice men of the Cymry. On account of these three foolish battles, the Saxons took the country of Lloegria from the Cymry, because there was not sufficient warriors left to oppose the Saxons. XXX the treachery of Gwrgi Garwlwyd, and the deception of Eiddilic the dwarf.

51. The three fatal counsels of the Isle of Prydein: First, the giving of permission to Julius Caesar and the Romans with him, to have a place for the hoofs of their horses in the cave of the verdant edge, in the Isle of Thanet; and by this act, the Romans gained a landing place to invade the Isle of Prydein, and to form an alliance with the traitor Mandubratius ap Lludd. Such permission was granted to the Romans because the Cymry thought it contemptible to defend their country otherwise than through strength of arms, heroism, and the bravery of the people, where they had no suspicion of the treachery of Mandubratius, ap Lludd, with the Romans. The second fatal counsel was that of permitting Horsa, Hengist and Rowena to return to the Island of Prydein, after they were driven over the sea to the country from which they originated. The third was to suffer Arthur to divide his men with Medrawd three times in the battle of Camlan, and through which Arthur lost the victory and his life, where Medrawd was united with the Saxons.

52. The three tremendous slaughters of the Isle of Prydein: The first, when Medrawd went to Galliwig, he did not leave in the court, meat and drink to support a fly, but consumed and wasted it all; and he pulled Gwenhwyvar from her throne, and committed adultery with her. The second was, when Arthur went to the court of Medrawd, he left neither meat or drink that he did not destroy; and killed everything in the hundred, both man and beast. The third was, when the traitorous Aeddan went to the court of Rhydderch the Generous, he destroyed all the meat and drink in the court, without as much as would feed a fly; and he did not leave either man or beast alive, but destroyed them all. These were called the three dreadful slaughters because the Cymry were compelled, according to law and custom, to answer and redress for what was done in that irregular, unusual and lawless behavior.

53. The three concealments and disclosures of the isle of Prydein. The first was the head of Bran the Blessed, ap Llyr, that Owain ap Ambrosius had concealed in the white hill in London; and while it remained in that state, no injury could happen to this Island. The second were the bones of Gwrthevyr the Blessed, which were buried in the principal ports of the Island, and while they remained there, no assault upon the Island could occur. The third were the Dragons of Dinas Emrys, which were concealed by Lludd ap Beli in the fortress of Pharaon among the rocks of Snowdon. And that these three concealments were placed under the protection of the goddess and her attributes, so that misery should fall upon the hour and the person who should disclose them. Vortigern revealed the dragons out of revenge for the opposition of the Cymry to him, and he invited the Saxons under the semblance of auxiliaries to fight with the Irish picts; and after that, he revealed the bones of Gwrthevyr the Blessed out of love for Rowena ab Hengist the Saxon. And Arthur reveled the head of Bran the Blessed, ap Llyr, because he scorned to keep the Island but by his own might; and after these three disclosures, the invaders obtained the superiority over the Cymry nation.

54. The three over-ruling counter energies of the Isle of Prydein: Hu the Mighty, who brought the Cymry Nation from the Summerland, called Defrobani, unto the Isle of Prydein; Prydein, ap Aedd the Great, who organized the nation and established a jury over the Isle of Prydein; and Rhitta Gawr, who made a robe for himself of the beards of kings whom he made captives, on account of their oppression and lawlessness.

55. The three beneficial harassers of the Isle of Prydein: Prydein, ap Aedd the Great, harassing the dragon of oppression, which was the oppression of pillage and lawlessness, engendered in the Isle of Prydein; Caradog ap Bran, ap Llyr, harassing the Roman invaders; and Rhitta Gawr, harassing the oppression and pillaging of dissolute kings.

56. The three benefactors of the Cymry nation. First, Hu the Mighty, who first taught the Cymry to plough, when they were i Gwlad yr Hav, before they came to the Isle of Prydein. Second, Coll, ap Collvrewi, who first brought wheat and barley to the Isle of Prydein, for before that time there were nothing but oats and rye. Third, Elldud, the holy knight of Theodosius, who improvised the mode of plowing land and taught the Cymry better than was known before, and he gave them the system and art of cultivating lands as is used at present; for before that time land was cultivated only with the mattock and over-tread plough, after the manner of the Irish.

57. The three primary inventors of the Cymry. Hu the Mighty, who formed the first mote and retinue over the nation of Cymry; Dyvnwal Moelmud, who made the first regulations of the laws, privileges and customs of the country and tribe; and Tydain, the father of poetic genius who made the first order and regulation for the record and memorial of vocal song, and that which pertains to it. From this system, the privileges and organized customs, respecting the bards and bardism in the Isle of Prydein, were first formed.

58. The three primary bards of the Isle of Prydein: Plennydd, Alawn, and Gwron. That is, these formed the privileges and customs that appertain to bards and bardism, and therefore they are called the three primary bards. Nevertheless, there were bards and bardism prior to them, but they had neither privileges nor customs otherwise than what they obtained through kindness and civility, under the protection of the nation and the people, before the time of these three. These lived in the time of Prydein, ap Aedd the Great, but others affirm that they flourished in the time of Dyvnwal Moelmud’s son; and this information they derive from ancient manuscripts which are entitled “Dyvnwarth ap Prydein.”

59. The three beneficial sovereigns of the Isle of Prydein: First, Prydein, ap Aedd the Great, who first formed a system of citizenship of the country and the tribe, and the organization of the country and the bordering country in the Isle of Prydein. Second, Dyvnwal Moelmud, who improved and extended the institutes, laws, privileges and customs of the Cymry nation, so that equity and justice might be obtained by all in the Isle of Prydein, under the protection of the tranquility of the Great Spirit, and under the protection of the country and tribe. Third, Howel the Good, ap Cadell, and grandson of Rhodri the Great, king of all the Cymry, who improved the laws of the Isle of Prydein, as the changes and circumstances which occurred among the Cymry demanded, lest what was good might be effaced, and lest what was excellent might not succeed it, according to the conditions and effect of the organization of the Cymry. And these men were the best of legislators.

60. The three vigorous ones of the Isle of Prydein: Gwrneth the sharp shot, who killed the greatest bear that was ever seen with a straw arrow; Gwgawn with the mighty hand, who rolled the stone of Maenarch from the valley to the summit of mount Snowdonia, and which required sixty oxen to draw it down from there; and Eidiol the Mighty, who, in the plot of Stonehenge, killed Sixty Saxons with a branch of a service tree, between sunset and dark.

61. The three royal families that were conducted to prison from the great great grandfather to the great grandchildren, without permitting one of them to escape. First, the family of Llyr Llediaiath, who were put into prison in Rome by the Caesareans. Second, the family of Madawg ap Medron, who were imprisoned in Alban, by the Irish Picts. Third, the family of Gair ap Geirion, who were imprisoned in Oeth and Anoeth, by the verdict of the country and tribe. Not one of these escaped; and it was the most complete incarceration that was ever known, with respect to these families.

62. The three High Priests of the Isle of Prydein. First, Llandav, through the favour of Lleirwg ap Coel and grandson of Cyllin, who first gave lands an privilege of the country to those who first dedicate themselves to the Goddess. Second, York, through favour of the emperor constantine; for he was once the head of The Delphics. The third was London, through favour of Emperor Maximus. Afterwards there were Caerllion upon Usk, Celliwig in Cornwall, and Edinburgh in the North; and now there are St. Davids, York and Canterbury.

63. The three supreme thrones of the Isle of Prydein: First, London; second, Caerllion upon Usk; and third York.

64. The three tribes of the throne of the Isle of Prydein. The first is Caerllion upon Usk; and there Arthur has supreme authority, St. David ap Cunedda Wledig being chief High Priest, and Maelgwyn of North Wales being chief elder. Second, Celliwig in Cornwall, and there Arthur has supreme authority,

Bedwini being chief High Priest, and Caradawg with the Brawny Arm chief elder. Third, Edinburgh in the North; and there Arthur has supreme authority, Cyndeyrn Garthwys being chief high Priest, and Gwrthmwl Wledig chief elder.

65. The three privileged ports of the Isle of Prydein: Newport in Monmouthshire, Beaumaris in Anglesea, and Gwyddnaw in Cardiganshire.

66. The three most noted rivers of the Isle of Prydein: the Severn in Cymmru, the Thames in Lloegria, and the Humber in Deira and Bernicia.

67. The three primary Islands attached to the Isle of Prydein: Orkney, Man and Wight; at a subsequent period the sea broke through the land, and Anglesea became separate from Wales; and in a like manner the Orkney Isle was broken, and many Islands were formed in consequence, and other parts of Wales and Prydein became Islands.

68. The three fleet-owners of the Isle of Prydein: Geraint ap Erbin; Gwenwynwyn ap Nav; and March ap Meirchion. Each of these chiefs had one hundred and twenty ships, and one hundred and twenty sailors in each ship.

69. The three frontlet ones of the battle of the Isle of Prydein: Trystan ap Tallwch; Huail ap Caw of Prydyn, lord of the vale of Cawlwyd; and Cai, ap Cynyr with the shining beard. And there was one frontlet wearer above the other three, who was Bedwyr ap Pedrawg.

70. The three naturalists of the Isle of Prydein: Gwalchmai ap Gwyar; Llecheau ap Arthur; and Rhiwallon of the Broom-brush-hair; and there was nothing of which they did not know its material essence, and its property, whether of kind, quality, compound, coincidence, tendency, nature, or of essence, whatever it might be.

71. The three pillars of the battle of the Isle of Prydein: Dunawd Fur, ap Pabo the Pillar of Prydein; Gwallawg, ap Lleenawg; and Cynvelyn the Stumbler. That is, they understood the order and necessary arrangements for battle better than any others that ever existed.

72. The three bulls of battle of the Isle of Prydein: Cynvar Cadgadawg, ap Cynwyd Cynwydion; Gwendolleu ap Ceidaw; and Urien ap Cynvarch; because they rushed upon their foes like bulls, and it was not possible to avoid them.

73. The three bull princes of the Isle of Prydein: Elmur the adopted ap Cibddar; Cynhavel ap Argad; and Avaon ap Taliesin, chief of the bards. These three were bards; and they dreaded nothing in battle and conflict, but rushed forward, regardless of death.

74. The three arrogant ones of the Isle of Prydein: Sawl the lofty headed; Pasgen ap Urien; and Rhun ap Einiawn. Their arrogance was most arrogant above every arrogant thing, by means of which they brought anarchy in the Isle of Prydein; and those who were influenced by this anarchy, united with the Saxons, and finally became Saxons.

75. The three strong crutched ones of the Isle of Prydein: Rhineri ap Tangwn; Tinwaed the crutched; and Pryderi, ap Doler of Deira and Bernicia.

76. The three grave slaughterers of the Isle of Prydein: Selyv ap Cynan Garwyn; Avaon ap Taliesin; and Gwallawg ap Lleenawg. They were called grave slaughterers because they were able to avenge their wrongs from their graves.

77. The three golden-corpses of the Isle of Prydein: Madawg ap Brwyn; Ceugant Belliawg; and Rhuvon the Fair ap Gwyddnaw Garanhir. They are so called because their weight in gold was given to deliver them from those who slew them.

78. The three forward ones of the Isle of Prydein: Eiddilic the dwarf; Trystan ap Tallwch; and Gweirwerydd the Great; because nothing could divert them from their designs.

79. There were three kingdoms destroyed by the sea: the kingdom of Teithi Hen, ap Gwynnan, King of Kaerrihog. That kingdom was called at the time, the Realm of Teithi Hen; it was between St. David’s and Ireland. No one escaped from it, neither men nor animals, except Teithi Hen alone with his horse; afterwards for all the days of his life he was weak with fear. The second kingdom was that of Helig ap Glannog, it was between Cardigan and Bardsey, and as far as St. davids. That land was very good, fertile and level, and it was called Maes Maichgen; it lay from the mouth of the Ystwyth to Llyn, and up to Aberdovey. The sea destroyed the third kingdom: the kingdom of Rhedfoe ap Rheged.

80. The Three Fair Princes of the Island of Prydein: Owain ap Urien; Rhun ap Maelgwn; and Rhufawn the Radiant, ap Dewrarth Wledig.

81. The Three generous hosts of the Isle of Prydein: the host of Belyn ap Cynvelyn, in the warfare of Caradawg ap Bran; the host of Mynyddawg Eiddin in the battle of Cattraeth; and the host of Drywon ap Nudd the Generous, in the defile of Arderydd in the North. That is, every one marched at his own expense, without waiting to be summoned, and without demanding either pay or reward of the country, or the prince; and because of this they were called the three generous hosts.

82. The three loyal tribes of the Isle of Prydein. The tribe of Cadwallawn the adopted ap Cadvan, who were with him seven years in Ireland, and during that time they demanded neither pay, nor reward, lest they be obliged to leave him, and he should not be able to make the compensation to which they were entitled. second, the tribe of Gavran ap Aeddan, when the loss by disappearance took place, who went to sea in search of their lord. Third, the family of Gwendolleu ap Ceidiaw, who maintained the battle for forty-six days after their lord was slain. The number of each of the tribes was twenty-one hundred heroic men, and so great was their courage that they could not be vanquished.

83. The three disloyal tribes of the Isle of Prydein. The tribe of Goronwy the fair from Penllyn, who refused to stand instead of their lord to receive the poisoned javelin from Llew Llaw Gyfes by the Stone of Goronwy before Cynvel, in Ardudwy. Second, the tribe of Gwrgi and Peredur who deserted their lords in the fortress of Crau, where there was an appointment for battle the next morning with Ida the Great Knee, and they were both slain. The third were the tribe of Alan Morgan, who returned back from their lord by stealth, leaving him and his servants to march to Camlan, where he was slain.

84. Three things that caused the reduction of Lloegria and wrested it from the Cymmruns: the harbouring of strangers, the liberating of prisoners, and the present of the Bald Man.

85. The three men who escaped from the battle of Camlan: Morvran ap Tegid who, being so ugly, everyone thought he was the devil from hades and fled before him; Sandde Angel-aspect, who being so handsome, so beautiful, and a fine figure of a man, that no one would raise their arm against him, thinking that he was a fairy prince from Gwlad yr Hav; and Glewlwyd with the Mighty Grasp, for so large was his size and mighty his strength, that no one could stand before him, and ever one fled at his approach. These are the three men who escaped from the battle of Camlan.

86. The three perpetual choirs of the Isle of Prydein: the choir of Llan Illtyd Vawr, Glamorganshire; the Choir of Ambrosius in Ambresbury; and the choir of Glastonbury. In each of these three choirs there were 2,400 saints; that is, there were a hundred for every hour of the day and the night in rotation, perpetuating the praise and service of the Great spirit.

87. The three shepherd retinues of the Island of Prydein: Benren the herdsman in Gorwennydd, who kept the herd of Caradawg ap Bran and his retinue, and in which herd there were 21,000 milch cows. Second, Gwydion ap Don, who kept the cattle of the tribe of North Wales above the Conway, and in that herd were 21,000. Third, Llawvrodedd the knight, who tended the cattle of Nudd the Generous, ap Senyllt, and in that herd were 21,000 milch cows.

88. The three roving fleets of the Isle of Prydein: the fleet of Llawr ap Eidriv; the fleet of Divwg ap Alban; and the fleet of dolor ap Mwrchath, king of Manaw.

89. The three chief cities of the Isle of Prydein: Caerllion upon Usk in Cymmru; London in Lloegria; and York in Deira and Bernica.

90. The three mighty achievements of the Isle of Prydein: raising the stone of Ceti; erecting Stonehenge; and heaping the pile of Cyvrangon.

91. The three renowned astronomers of the Isle of Prydein: Idris the giant; Gwydion ap Don; and Gwyn ap Nudd. such was their knowledge of the stars, their natures and qualities, that they could prognosticate whatever was wished to be known until the day of doom.

92. The three illusive and half-apparent men of the Isle of Prydein: Math ap Mathonwy, who showed his illusion to Gwydion ap Don; Menw ap Teirgwaedd, who revealed his secret to Uthyr Pendragon; and Rhuddlwm Gawr (the giant), who revealed his secret to Eiddilic the dwarf, and Coll ap Collvrewi.

93. The three beneficial artisans of the Isle of Prydein: Corvinwr the bard of Ceri of the long white lake, who first made a ship with sail and rudder for the Cymry nation; Morddal the man of the white torrent, the artist of Ceraint ap Greidiawl, who first taught the Cymry to work with stone an lime (at the time the emperor Alexander was subduing the world); and Coel ap Cyllin, grandson of Caradog, and great grandson of Bran, who first made a mill of round and wheel for the Cymry; and these were bards.

94. The three inventors of song and record of the Cymry nation: Gwyddon Ganhebon, who was the first in the world that composed vocal song; Hu the Mighty, who first applied vocal song to strengthen memory and record; and Tydain the father of poetic genius, who first conferred art on poetic song and made it the medium of record. From what was done by these three men, originated bards and bardism, and the privilege and institutes of these things were organized by the primary bards, Plennyd, Arawn, and Gwron.

95. The three primary youth-trainers of the Isle of Prydein: Tydain the father of poetic genius; Menw the Aged; and Gwrhir bard of Teilaw in Llandav; and these were bards.

96. The three monster bulls of the Isle of Prydein: the monster of Gwidawl; the monster of Llyr Merini; and the monster of Gwrthmwl Wledig.

97. the three wild monsters of the Isle of Prydein: the monster of Bannawg; the monster of Melan; and the monster of Ednyvedawg Drythyll.

98. The three viragoes of the Isle of Prydein: Llewei ab Seithwedd Saidi; Mederai ab Padellvawr; and Rhorei the Great ab Usber Galed.

99. The three primary and extraordinary works of the Isle of Prydein: the ship of Nwydd Nav Neivion, which brought in it a male and female of all living things when the lake of floods burst forth; the large horned oxen of Hu the Mighty, that drew the crocodile from the lake to the land, so that the lake did not burst any more; and the stone of Gwyddon Ganhebon, upon which all the arts and sciences in the world are engraved.

100. The three happy youth-trainers of the Isle of Prydein: Catwg ap Gwynlliw in Llangarvan; Madawg Morvryn in the choir of Illtyd; and Deiniol Wyn in North Wales. These three were bards.

101. The three shepherds of the tribes of the Isle of Prydein: Colwyn the shepherd of the tribe of Bran ap Llyr Llediaith, in Glamorgan; Pybydd the Bald, shepherd of the tribe of Tegerin of the family of Llwydiarth in Anglesea; and Gwessin the shepherd of the tribe of Goronwy ap Ednywain king of Tegeingl in Rhyvoniog, and his name was called Gwesyn because he tended sheep. The numbers tended by each of these men was 120,000 and each had under him three hundred slaves in the protection of the Cymry nation.

102. The three amorous ones of the Isle of Prydein. The first was Caswallawn ap Beli, for Flur, ab Mygnach Gor (dwarf), and he went for her as far as the Land of Gascony against the Romans, and he brought her away, and killed 6,000 Caesareans; and in revenge the Romans invaded this Island. The second was Trystan ap Tallwch, for Essyllt ab March ap Meirchion his uncle. The third was Cynon, for Morvydd ab Urien Rheged.

103. The three chaste maidens of the Isle of Prydein: Trywyl ab Llynghesawl with the generous hand; Gwenvron ab Tudwal Tudclud; and Tegau Eurvron, who was one of the three beauteous dames in the court of Arthur.

104. The three chaste wives of the Isle of Prydein were Arddun, wife of Catgor ap Collwyn; Eviliau, wife of Gwydyr Trwm; and Emerched, wife of Mabon ap Dewain the Aged.

105. The three unchaste wives of the Isle of Prydein were the three daughters of Culvynawyd Prydein. The first was Essyllt Vyngwen, the mistress of Trystan ap Tallwch; the second was Penarwen, wife of Owain ap Urien; and the third was Bun, wife of Ida the flame-bearer.

106. The three sprightly maids of the Isle of Prydein were Anghared Tonvelen, ab Rhydderch the Generous; Anan, ab Maig Mygedwas; and Perwyr, ab Rhun Ryseddvawr.

107. The three beautiful maids of the Isle of Prydein were Gwen, ab Cywryd ap Crydon; Creirwy, ab Ceridwen; and Arianrod, ab Don.

108 The three beautiful ladies of the court of Arthur were Dyvir, with the golden colored hair; Enid, ab Yniwl, the earl; and Tegau Eurvron. These were the three excellent ladies of Arthurs court.

109. The three wives of Arthur, who were his three chief ladies were Gwenhwyvar, ab Gwythyr ap Greidiawl; Gwenhwyvar, ab Gawrwyd Ceint; and Gwenhwyvar, ab Ogyrvan Gawr.

110. The three chief mistresses of Arthur were Garwen, ab Henyn of Tegyrn Gwyr and Ystrad Tywy; Gwyl, ab Eutaw of Caerworgorn; and Indeg, ab Avarwy the Tall of Radnorshire.

111. The Three Chief Courts of Arthur were Caerllion upon Usk in Cambria; Celliwig in Cornwall; and Edinburgh in the North. These were the three at which he kept the three chief festivals; that is to say Yule, Candlemas and Midsummer.

112. The Three Free Guests having origin in the court of Arthur: Llywarch Hen ap Elidir Lydanwyn; Lemonening; and Heiddyn the Tall; and these three were bards.

113. The Three Compeers of the Court of Arthur: Dalldav ap Cynin Cov; Trystan ap March ap Meirchion; and Rhyhawd ap Morgant ap Adras.

114. The Three Princes of the Court of Arthur were Goronwy, ap Echel of Vorddwydtwll; Cadraith, ap Porthor Godo; Vleidur Vlam ap Godo. That is to say, they were princes possessing territory and dominion, but not withstanding this, they preffered remaining as knights in Arthur’s court, judging that to be superior to all honour and dignity; and they went by the name of the three just knights.

115. The Three Elder Animals of the Isle of Prydein: The Owl of Cwm Cowlwyd; The Eagle of Gwernabwy; and The Stag of Rhedynvre.

116. The Three Sacred Animals of the Isle of Prudein: The Salmon of Knowledge; The Raven of Rebirth; and the Wild Boar of Truth.

117. The Three Immense Feasts of the Isle of Prydein: The first was the Feast that Caswallawn ap Beli made in London, where twenty-thousand cattle were slain, and a hundred thousand sheep, and fifty thousand geese and capons, and of wild and domesticated birds more than anyone might number; the second was Arthurs feast in Caerleon-on-Usk; and the third was Merddin of Mon.

118. The Three Red Speared Bards of the Isle of Prydein: Tristfardd, bard of Urien; Dygynnelw, bard of Owain ap Urien; and Afan Ferddig, bard of Cadwallawn ap Cadfan.

119. The Three Chieftans of Deira and Bernicia: Gall ap Disgyfdawd; Ysgafnell ap Disgyfdawd; and Diffydell ap Disgyfdawd.

120. The Three Golden-Tongued Knights of Arthur’s court: Gwalchmai ap Gwyar; Drudwas ap Tryphin; and Eliwlod ap Madog ap Uther. They were the wisest of all the wise of their time. So fair and gentlemanly was their deportment, and so mellifluous and eloquent in all their addresses, that no one could refuse to grant them what they desired.

121. The Three Wise Counseling Knights of Arthur’s court: Cynon ap Clydno Eiddin; Arawn ap Cynvarch; and Llywarch Hen ap Elidir Lydanwyn. Prosperity always followed their counsels, if they were attended to, and misfortune happened wetrever their counsels were neglected.

122. The Three Just Dispensing Knights of Arthur’s court: Blas son of the Prince of Llychlyn; Cadawg ap Gwynlliw the warrior; and Padrogyl the spear-splinterer, son of the King of India. The just dispositions of these were to defend the feeble ones, orphans, widows, virgins, and all who had placed themselves under the protection of the Goddess, and all the poor and weak, without exception, and to save them from violence, injury and oppression: Blas by the common law; Padrogyl by the law of arms; and Cadawg by the law of the Druids and the ordances of the Great spirit. And they acted neither from respect, nor fear, nor from love, nor hatred, nor from passion, nor from complaisance, nor from anger, nor from mercy of any kind, but only because it was just and right according to the law of Nature, the nature of goodness, and the demands of justice.

123. The Three Kingly Knights of Arthur’s court: Morgan the Greatly Courteous son of Adras; Medrawd ap Llew ap Cynvarch; and Howel ap Emyr of Amorica. It was their disposition to be so placid and mild, and pure in their discourse, that it was difficult for any person to refuse what they wanted.

124. The Three Lovely Knights of King Arthur’s court: the best towards every guest and stranger: Gwalchmai ap Gwyar; Garwy ap Geraint ap Erbin; and Cadeir the adopted son of Seithin Saidai. And no one could be denied what he sought from their courtesy, and so great was their generosity towards every person, that what they gained was the same as if a friend had obtained it on account of real friendship.

125. The Three Privileged knights of Arthur’s court: Eithew ap Gwrgawn; Colledawg ap Gwyn; and Geraint the Tall ap Cymmamon the Aged. They were plebians, and the sons of vassals; but their word and their disposition for honesty, urbanity, gentleness, wisdom, bravery, justice, mercy, and every praiseworthy quality and science, either in peace, or in war, were so good, that the court of Arthur and its privileges were free for them.

126. The Three Knights of Arthur’s court who guarded the Greal: Cadawg ap Gwynlliw; Illtud the sainted knight; and Perdur ap Evrawg.

127. The Three Continuel Knights of Arthur’s court: Cadawg ap Gwynlliw; Illtud the knight; and Bwrt ap Bwrt king of Llychlyn. That is not one of them would commit and carnal sin, nor would they form any matrimonial connection, nor have any connections with women, but chose to live as bachelors and to conduct themselves by the law of the Goddess and the druid way.

128. The Three Vain Bards of the Isle of Prydein: the first was Arthur; the second was Cadwallawn ap Cadvan; the third was Rhyhawd the adopted son of Morgant of Glamorgan.

129. The Three Golden Shoe-Wearers of the Isle of Prydein: Caswallawn ap Belli, when he went into Glascony to obtain Flur ab Mygnach the Dwarf, who had been taken there clandestinely to the Emperor Caesar by the person called Mygnach the Thief, king of that country, and the friend of Julius Caesar; and Caswallawn brought her back again to the Isle of Prydein. Second, Manawydan ap Llyr Llediaith, when he went as far as Dyfed imposing restrictions. Third, Llew Llaw Gyfes, when he went with Gwydion ap Don, seeking a name and purpose of Arianrhod his mother.

30. The Three Chief Bards of the Isle of Prydein: Merddin bard of Ambrosius; Taliesin chief of the bards; and Merddin ap Madawg Morvryn.

131. The Three Royal Domains which were established by Rhodri the Great of Cambria: the first was Dinevor; the second was Aberfraw; and the third was Mathravael. In each of these three domains there is a prince wearing a diadem; and the oldest of these three princes, whichever it might be, is to be sovereign; that is king of all Cambria. The other two must be obedient to his commands, and his command is imperative upon each of them. He is also chief of law and eldership in every collective convention and in every movement of the country and the tribe.

132. The Three Men Who Exposed Themselves and Their Progeny to Disgrace and Loss of Privilege, so that they could never recover the rank but that of bondman. The first was Mandubratius ap Llud, who first invited the Romans to this Island with the army of Julius Caesar their commander, and who gave them land on the Isle of Thanet. The second was Vortgern, who first invited the Saxons to this island that they may support him in his tyranny, and he gave them land on the Isle of Thanet, and misery came upon him for giving landed property in this Isle to strangers. He married Rowena ab Horsa, and the son he obtained by marriage he called Gotta; and he gave him the usurped rank of the monarchy of the Isle of Prydein. On this account the Cymry lost the monarchy of the Isle of Prydein. The third was Medrawd ap Llew, ap Cynvarch, who obtained the sovereignty of the Isle of Prydein in trust, while Arthur fought the Romans beyond the Alps, because they wished to invade this island again; and there Arthur lost the flower of his troops.

133. The three powerful swineheards of the Isle of Prydein: the first was Pryderi ap Pwyll Pendaran of Dyved. The second was Coll ap Collvrewi. The third was Trystan ap Tallwch.

134. The Three Quests that were obtained from Powys: the first of them was the fetching of Myngan from Meigen to Llansilin, by nine the next morning, to receive priveleges from Cadwallawn the Blessed, after the slaying of Ieuaf and Griffri; the second was the fetching of Griffri to Bryn Griffri before the following morning, to attack Edwin; and the third was the fetching of Hywel ap Ieuaf to Ceredigiawn from the Rock of Gwynedd to fight on the side of Ieuaf and Iago in that battle.

135. The Three Little Enchanters of the Isle of Prydein: Coll ap Collfrewy; Menw ap Teirgwaedd; and Drych ap Kibddar.

136. The Three Major Enchanters of the Isle of Prydein: the first and gentlest was Menw ap Gileum, his renown name is kept in memory; the second is Eiddilig the Dwarf, a wily Irishman; and the third was Math, a ruler of splendid kind, beside the seas of Mon, king of arfon.

137. The Three Bestowed Horses of the Isle of Prydein: the first was Sleder Grey, horse of Caswallawn ap Beli; the second was Pale Yellow of the Stud, horse of Lleu Law Gyffes; and the third was Host Splitter, horse of Caradawg Strong Arm.

138. The Three Chief Steeds of the Isle of Prydein: the first was Tall Black Tinted, horse of Cynan Garrwyn; the second was Eager Long Forelegs, horse of Cyhored ap Cynan; and the third was Red Wolf Tread, horse of Gilbert ap Cadgyffro.

139. The Three Plundered Horses of the Isle of Prydein: Cloven Hoof, horse of Owain ap Urien; the second was Long Tongue, horse of Cadwallawn ap Cadfan; and the third was Bucheslom, horse of Gwgawn of the Red Sword.

140. The Three Lovers Horses of the Isle of Pydein: Grey Fetlock, horse of Dalldaf ap Cunin Cof; Spotted dun, horse of Rahawd ap Morgant; and Pale White Lively Back, horse of Morfran ap Tegid.

141. The Three Lively Steeds of the Isle of Prydein: Grey, horse of Aster ap Maelgwn; Chestnut Long Neck, horse of Cai; and Roan Cloven Hoof, horse of Iddon ap Ynyr Gwent.

142. The Three Pack Horses of the Isle of Prydein: Black, horse of Brwyn ap Cunedda; Huge Yellow, horse of Pasgen ap Urien; and Dun grey, horse of Rhydderch Hael.

143. The Three Prominent Oxen of the Isle of Prydein: Yellow Pale White; Chestnut, oxen of Gwylwylyd; and the Speckled Ox of Maelgwn Gwynedd.

144. The Three Women who recieved the Beauty of the Goddess Three Fold: Diadema, mistress of Aeneas White shield; Elen the Magnificent, the woman on whose account was the destruction of Troy; and Polixena, ab Priam the Old, king of Troy.

145. Arthur’s Three great Queens: Gwennhwyfar ap Gwent; Gwenhwyfar ap Gwythr ap Greidiawl; and Gwenhwyfar ap Gogfran the Giant.

146 Arthur’s Three Mistresses were: Indeg ab Garwy (the Tall); Garwen (Fair Leg) ab Henin the Old; and Gwyl (Modest) ab Gendawd (Big Chin).

147. The Three Gate Keepers at the Action of Bangor Orchard: Gwgon Red Sword; Madawg ap Rhun; and Gwiawn ap Cyndrwyn. And three others on the side of Lloegr: Hawystyl the Arrogant; Gwaetcym Herwuden; and Gwiner.