The Lost Disciples to Britain #2
The Tin Island and Culdee
DRAMA OF THE LOST DISCIPLES #2 by George Jowett (1961) LET THERE BE LIGHT WE have identified the sterling character of the Noblis Decurio, his eminence in religious, political and commercial affairs in both the Jewish and Roman hierarchy, his intimate association with the family of Christ, and particularly the powerful influence he exercised in the last tragic days of Jesus, from the scene of the illegal trial for life to the time Joseph, with his companions, were banished from Judea, to their arrival at Marseilles, in Gaul. It will be helpful if we pause to consider the world of A.D. 36, before beginning the fascinating story of Joseph's landing in Britain with his companions and what followed. Due to the historic discrepancies that commonly exist concerning this era, it is important that one becomes familiar, if but slightly, with the histories of the peoples of the various nations who played an active part in the Christian drama. We commonly find much confusion and misunderstanding caused by the random translation of names and places into the various languages that then prevailed. Historians do not quote, or even refer, to the language then spoken by the original Britons and Gauls. Reference is generally given piecemeal from the Greek or Latin, which had not the slightest affinity with the Cymric tongue. Perhaps unwittingly, historians have been the worst offenders in erecting barriers to the truth, subscribing to the unsupportable belief that Britain, for centuries before and after A.D. 36, was an island populated by wild savages, painted barbarians completely devoid of culture and religious conscience. Nonchalantly, the reporters wrote off those majestic years as being steeped in myth, legend and folklore. The strange distortion of ancient Britain is the most incredible paradox in history. One could be forgiven for thinking that certain academic minds had deliberately entered into a joint conspiracy to defame the history of those islands and their inhabitants. It is not as though the truth were hidden. They had but to read the classical histories of Rome, Greece and Gaul, as their course affected Britain, and compare notes with the early British Triads. It required but a mite of effort on their part to search the old church records and the stored tomes in the British Museum Library and other libraries at hand, replete with concrete evidence contradicting the spurious writers. In addition, thousands of Cymric Triads and monastic documents exist, particularly in the Vatican Library, as well as the historic versions of the earliest British historians, Celtic and Saxon. A few enlightened historians did cast gleams of light on the truth, but it was darkened and made obscure by the mass of irresponsible literature foisted on the public. Truth was lost in unbelievable error. Strange as it may seem, it was the enemies of ancient Britain who wrote at length with candour the most faithful description of the early Britons, showing that they possessed an admirable culture, a patriarchal religion, and an epochal history that extended far beyond that of Rome. Modern writers also confirm their testimony. E. O. Gordon, in "Prehistoric London," states that the city of London (Llandn) was founded two hundred and seventy years before Rome, in 1020 B.C. The famed British archaeologist, Sir Flinders Petrie, discovered at Old Gaza gold ornaments and enamelware of Celtic origin, dated 1500 B.C., and in reverse found Egyptian beads at Stonehenge. The art of enamelling is early identified with Britain as is the production of tin. The ancient Briton was the inventor of enamelling. He was so perfect in this craft that relics reposing in the British Museum, and the Glastonbury Museum, such as the famous Glastonbury bowl (over two thousand years old), and the beautiful Desborough mirror are as perfect as the day they were made. They are magnificent examples of "La Tene" art, as the Celtic design is named, their geometric beauty and excellence being beyond the ability of modern craftsmen to duplicate. In "Early Britain," by Jacquetta Hawkes, page 32, we read "These Yorkshire Celts, beyond all other groups, seem to have been responsible for establishing the tradition of La Tene art. ... Nearly all the finest pieces are luxuries reflecting the taste of warriors who enjoyed personal magnificence and the trapping out of their wives and horses. Brooches to fasten the Celtic cloak, bracelets, necklaces, pins, hand mirrors, harness fittings, bits and horse armour, helmets, sword scabbards and shields were among the chief vehicles of La Tene art. They show on the one hand strong plastic modelling, and on the other decorative design incised, in low relief, or picked out in coloured enamel. Both plastically and in the flat the Celtic work shows an extraordinary assurance, often a kind of wild delicacy, far surpassing its Greek prototypes. In these the finest artists achieved a marvellous control of balanced symmetry in the design and equally in its related spaces." S. E. Winbold, in Britain B.C., writes: "The Celtic curvilinear art, circa 300 B.C. and of which the famous Glastonbury bowl is a good example, reached its zenith development in Britain." Roman testimony states that captive Britons taught the Romans the craft of enamelling. Herodotus, father of profane history, circa 450 B.C., wrote, of the British Isles and its people, under the name of Cassiterides, remarking on their talent in the metal industry. Julius Caesar, following his campaign in Britain, 55 B.c., wrote with admiration of their culture, their sterling character, ingenuity in commerce and craftsmanship. He refers in amazement to the number of populous cities, the architecture, universities of learning, the numerical population of England, and particularly to their religion with its belief in the immortality of the soul. (Obviously the druids of Britain did not have all truth, they did have false doctrine among many truths - the immortality of the sould being one of those false doctrines - Keith Hunt) MIGRATIONS Ancient historians record the exploits of the Kimmerians- Kimmerii-Keltoi-Kelts, in their migrations through Europe into Britain. Modern historians refer to their passage and somehow leave and lose them on the European continent. Yet modern ethnologists have correctly charted their migrations from their ancient source in the East to their final destination in Gaul and Britain, which were uninhabited before their arrival. Archaeologists have uncovered their past from the Crimea to Britain as factually as they have substantiated the historic existence of Babylon and Chaldea. Long before they were known as Kimmerians, the prophet Isaiah addressed himself plainly to the inhabitants of "The Isles". Why historians have mutilated the facts, submerging in myth and mystery the antiquity of Britain, is a tragedy that baffles the mind. While it is stated that the ancient Phoenician script is an ancestor of our own, philologists assert that the Keltic or Cymric tongue is the oldest living language. Its root words have a basic affinity with ancient Hebrew. In making this statement it should be pointed out that the original tongue of the Biblical characters had little association with modern Hebrew. The ancient language was devoid of vowels. Modern Hebrew was not formulated until the sixth century. To the modern Jew, the original Hebrew is a lost tongue. (On visiting Wales today you will find in many stores things like tea-towels with the words on them "Welsh, the oldest language in Europe" - yes Europe not Britain. I talked to a Welshman and he told me that if you could raise from the dead a Kelt from 500 B.C. the two of them would speak and understand each other perfectly in the Welsh language - Keith Hunt) In the Bible we read of Ezra bewailing the fact that his brethren could not understand their native language and, therefore, on their return to Jerusalem from the Babylonian captivity, 536 B.C., Ezra was obliged to read the law to them in the Assyrio-Chaldean language. Modern Hebrew is like Greek and Latin, a classical language. The Jew of today reads and speaks in Yiddish, a conglomeration of several languages. In the same manner as many modernists prate the dead, false theory of evolution, the prejudiced, and uninformed continue to regard the ancient British language as a mixture of several, regardless of philologic contradiction. Abundant proof exists today that the ancient language is still alive. It is frequently spoken in Wales, Cornwall, Ireland, Scotland. and in Brittany and Normandy. Available are many old Bibles written in the Celtic languages. One of the most prominent Scottish newspapers is published in the old tongue, and an adaptation of the Celtic is the official language of Eire. It is interesting to know the important part the ancient language played in World War I. When the Allied Command could find no other method to prevent German Intelligence from deciphering the Allied wire messages, it was Lloyd George, Britain's wartime Prime Minister, who suggested that the ancient language, which he spoke fluently, be employed. Its use completely baffled German Intelligence, preventing further code interception. This could not have been possible if the Cymric tongue was garbled. It had to be grammatically organized and intelligible. Even today, nothing is more distorted than the modern histories of world nations. They are either subject to political chauvinism, or glorified idolatry by super-patriots. The historic truth seems to be unpopular. Reporters seem to revel in biased national opinion, with an inclination to judge from the materialistic level of intelligence. Anything different is ignorant, medieval or prejudiced. They tend to describe their own native history according to their Party philosophy, ignoring its transition in name and language from the past. They fail to recognize the significant fact that language and geography is no criterion of race. There is change in everything. Language changes, so does the geographical habitation of people, but not race. To evaluate the history of any race we must recognize the progressive changes as they appear in language, religion, social custom, and their adaptation to geographical residence. We must ever be on guard against the distorters, the irresponsible, the charlatan and the atheist. Their warped minds are motivated by bigotry, prejudice, intolerance, religious and racial hatred. They delight in destroying the champions of the truth. What they do not understand they scofflingly label as tradition. Actually, they do not understand the meaning of the word. To them it means a myth. Disraeli eloquently said: "A tradition can neither be made nor destroyed." (Since 1961 when the author was puiblishing this work, what he said about historians was very correct. Since then historians have had to admit historic truth they would not accept, so things have changed, and British ancient history is now admitted to be correct as preserved by the Welsh and others - Keith Hunt) A tradition is a truth, though garnished with degrees of exaggeration in the passage of time from repetitive retelling. It can be clearly elucidated by separating the chaff from the wheat. Through the common practice of generalizing we are prone to use terms loosely, which easily side-track us into forming faulty conclusions. Arising out of this habit we have come to generalize the meaning of the word "Christian", insinuating that all followers of Jesus were known by that name from the beginning. In actual fact, the name "Christian" had not then been coined. It was not created until years after His death. To the Judean, the Greek, and the Roman world, the early adherents to the new Gospel were known as "Followers of The Way". Jesus had said, "I am The Way." To all His devotees He was "The Way". In their devotions they referred to Christ and His spiritual philosophy as "The Way". CULDEE The title, "Christian", is claimed to have originated at Antioch, following the enthusiastic reception given to the disciples who fled there in A.D. 36. It is nearer to the truth that the inhabitants of this ancient city referred to the converts as "Little Christs", and, "Little men of Christ". These labels are by no means the correct interpretation of the name "Christian". The word is a composite of Greek and Hebrew. "Christ" is the Greek word meaning "consecrated", and "ian" is from the Hebrew word "am", meaning a person, or people. Therefore, the true meaning of the word "Christian" is "consecrated people". Early ecclesiastics and historians definitely state that the word is of British origin. Philologists also support its claim to British invention; created by the British priesthood, among whom the Christian movement gained its first and strongest impetus. Substantiation is found in the statement by Sabellus, A.D. 250, who wrote: "The word Christian was spoken for the first time in Britain, by those who first received The Word, from the Disciples of Christ." It is interesting to note that the Bethany group who landed in Britain, was never referred to by the British priesthood as Christians, nor even later when the name was in common usage. They were called "Culdees", as were the other disciples who later followed the Josephian mission into Britain. There are two interpretations given to the word "Culdee", or "Culdich", both words purely of the Celto--British language, the first meaning "certain strangers", and the other as explained by Lewis Spence, who states that "Culdee" is derived from "Ceile-De", meaning, "servant of the Lord". In either case the meaning is appropriate. This title, applied to Joseph of Arimathea and his companions, clearly indicates that they were considered as more than ordinary strangers. The name sets them apart as somebody special. In this case, since they arrived in Britain on a special mission with a special message, we can fairly accept the title meant to identify them as "certain strangers, servants of the Lord". In the ancient British Triads, Joseph and his twelve companions are all referred to as Culdees, as also are Paul, Peter, Lazarus, Simon Zelotes, Aristobulus and others. This is important. The name was not known outside Britain and therefore could only have been assigned to those who actually had dwelt among the British Cymri. The name was never applied to any disciple not associated with the early British missions. Even though Gaul was Celtic, the name was never employed there. In later years the name Culdee took on an added significance, emphasizing the fact that the Culdee Christian Church was the original Church of Christ on earth. It became a title applied to the church, and to its High Priests, persisting for centuries in parts of Britain, after the name had died out elsewhere in favour of the more popular name, Christian. Culdees are recorded in church documents as officiating at St. Peter's, York, until A.D. 936. And, according to the Rev. Raine, the Canons of York were called Culdees as late as the reign of Henry II. In Ireland a whole county was named Culdee, declared with emphasis when reference was heard at a court hearing in the seventeenth century, as to its laws. The name Culdee, and Culdich, clung tenaciously to the Scottish Church, and its prelates, much longer than elsewhere. Cambell writes in "Reullura": The pure Culdees were Alby's [Albion] earliest priests of God, ere yet an island of her seas, by foot of Saxon monk was trod. LANGUAGES AND GREEK In the days of Christ the popular language of the East was Greek, more so than Roman. Aramaic and Hebrew were chiefly confined to the Judeans. Jesus was, in all probability, fluent in Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek and Latin. And, if what we are told is factual, He was also versed in the Celtic language. The cultured people of the Roman province of Palestine were conversant with Greek, Hebrew and Latin. The Septuagint translation of the Old Testament was written in Greek at Alexandria, 285 B.C. It is interesting to note that this work was compiled by seventy Jewish scholars, and not Greek, as was generally supposed. Centuries before Christ, the Greek-language was well known to the ancient British, from commercial association with the Phoenicians, Greek tin traders and sailors. Julius Caesar tells us that the Druids employed the Greek script in all their commercial transactions. TIN ISLAND At this particular period of British history, the island was more commonly referred to by its industry than by its British name. Known as the Cassiterides, meaning "Tin Island", it was for many centuries the only country in the world where tin was mined and refined, Aristotle, 350 B.C. is one of the first writers to name Britain, the "Tin Islands". Herodotu uses the name earlier, circa 450 B.C. (Bk.3:115). Julius Caesar writes of his visit to the famous Spanish tin mine at Talavera, 50 B.C. Many centuries before tin was discovered at Talavera the tin trade flourished in Britain. In fact, Spanish history tells of a close association with Cornwall and it appears that the Spanish Government sought the skilled miners of Cornwall, to instruct them in obtaining the wolfram and in constructing the mines. Many Cornish names appear in Talaveran tin mining history of men who were instructors, superintendents, overseers and foremen and experts in assaying the rock. Proof of British superiority in the tin industry and its affluent world-wide trade is referred to by Herodotus 450 B.C., Pytheas 353 B.C., Aristotle 350 B.C., Polybius 150 B.C., Diodorus Siculus, Posidonius and others, most of whom wrote long before the Christian era. Each deals at length with the British tin industry in Cornwall and Devon, explaining the paths of transportation from Britain, overland and by sea to the various ports on the Mediterranean and elsewhere in the known world of that time. The ancient ships of biblical Tarshish were the first navigators to transport tin and lead from Britain to the nations of the empiric world. Their navy controlled the seas and later became known in history as the Phoenicians. The tin that garnished the splendour of the Palace of Solomon, 1005 B.C., was mined and smelted into ingots at Cornwall and thence shipped by the Phoenicians to Palestine. Creasy, the eminent British historian, in his "History of England," writes: "The British mines mainly supplied the glorious adornment of Solomon's temple." For many years the Phoenicians held a monopoly on the transportation of British tin over the sea lanes. They guarded their secret jealously. It is well known that when followed by other seacraft, seeking to learn the source of their trade, their mariners would deliberately strike a false course, and in extremity would purposely wreck their vessel. This sacrifice was reimbursed out of the Phoenician treasury. For confirmation of this it is interesting to quote Strabo, who died A.D. 25 "Anciently the Phoenicians alone, from Cadis, engrossed this market, hiding the navigation from all others. When the Romans followed the course of a vessel that they might discover the situation, the jealous pilot wilfully stranded the ship, misleading those who were tracing him to the same destruction. Escaping from shipwreck, he was indemnified for his losses out of the public treasury." The Phoenicians of Carthage were more, successful. Anxious to share in the trade of Cadis, an expedition under Hamilco passed the Straits about 450 B.C., and sailing to the north, discovered the Tin Island. Ptolemy and Polybius, vigorously support Diodorus, writing of the friendliness of the people of Cornwall and of Dammonia, which was the name then applied to Devon. These locales were where the tin mining chiefly existed. In the making of bronze, tin was the main alloy. Thus it can be safely said that the Bronze Age had its inception in Britain. Knowledge of this fact alone is sufficient to refute all malicious insinuation that the ancient Britons were barbarian. (Most historians today agree that B.C. Britain was FAR from barbarianism - Keith Hunt) By necessity, to excel in mining and smelting tin and lead, to be proficient in casting metal, and expert in enamelling, a people must be intelligent in the science of minerology and metallurgy. The world-wide demand for these precious metals beat a sea lane to Britain's shores, bringing its inhabitants in close contact with the ancient powers. Consequently, it is quite understandable why the British, with the foundation of their own language steeped in ancient Hebrew, and their knowledge of Greek, could be responsible for coining the word "Christian". Also, we can understand why many of the oldest landmarks in this area of Britain abound in Hebrew names. (Many have seen the connection between Welsh and ancient Hebrew languages - either of them used vowels - and the pronouncing of words had to be handed down from generation to generation. So today nobody can pronounce Welsh unless you are verbally taught as it contains no vowels - Keith Hunt) The association of Joseph of Arimathea with the tin industry in Cornwall is positive. Fragments of poems and miners' songs, handed down through the centuries, make frequent reference to Joseph. It has long been customary for the miners to shout when they worked, "Joseph was a tin man", "Joseph was in the tin trade." These were their chief trade slogans which identified Joseph as a prominent person in the British tin industry. KELTS At the time of our story, the islanders were known racially as Kelts, derived from their historical racial name Kimmerian- Kimmerii-Kymry-Keltoi-Kelt. The letter 'C' began to substitute the letter 'K' in spelling the name, but the pronunciation is the same. Even in those remote times the name Kelt took on a different enunciation and spelling, arising out of native patois. Then, as today, we find the descendants of this ancient people in England and Wales referred to as Celts, the inhabitants of Hibernia - Ireland - as Kelts, Gaels, in Scotland and the people of Gaul, now France, as Gauls - Gallic. Ethnically they are all the same people. The meaning of the word in each case is "stranger", indicating that a Celt, Kelt, Gael or a Gaul were strangers to the land in which they dwelt, not an aborigine as some would have us suppose. It is important to note, though they were strangers to the land, they were its first settlers, securing their new homeland in peace, and not with the sword, since there were no people to conquer. (Brutus the Trojon from the city of Troy - the famous Troy/Greek wars - came with his band of settlers to Britain about 1100 B.C. and were its first permenant settlers. The Trojons were from the house of Judah, they left the tribe of Judah and settled the city of Troy - Keith Hunt) They were truly colonizing strangers in a virgin land. We know they were strangers to Britain and Gaul, though very ancient, but, like a silver thread woven in a dark woof we can trace their wanderings as one people from their original homeland beyond the Euphrates river, for over three thousand years B.C. to their new domicile in the Mystic Isles, and in Gaul. Francois Guizot, the authoritative French historian in his "Histoire de la Civilisation en France," writes: "The Gauls, or Celts, had the honour of giving their name FIRST to this land." The name of the Gaul persisted until about the middle of the fifth century, when the Gothic Franks, under the leadership of Meroveus, invaded, and settled the land, displacing the Gaul in numbers and in name. The national name "France" is derived from the tribal name of Frank, meaning "Freeman". Yet, the Gaul left his impress on the land in his co-British name in the first province he founded. Today it is still known by its original ancient name - Brittany. At one time the Continent had been land-locked with Britain, until a natural upheaval caused the present separation. Evidently for a considerable length of time the separation was not too widely marked. In the ancient Druidic Triads we read of a Gaulish bishop, walking over the divide across a plank as he journeyed from Gaul to pay the annual tithe to the mother Druidic Church in Britain. Despite the washing of the lands by the seas for many centuries, the distance between Dover and Calais today is only twenty-four miles. Separated, the island became geographically known as Britain, and the nearby Continental section as Gaul.