The arms of Piast Oels, from the Piast’s last Sovereignty in Poland (at Silesia).
The arms, the Oels family name, the property, and the territory of this Principality was officially inherited by the ruling prince of Brunswick as family of the last Piast Princess. These estates have remained in the spelling of the names, and is a valid matter of international law. Brunswick-Oels was violently annexed by Prussia, however it remains with rights to Wolfenbuettel.
For more than 1,000 years Brunswick(Wolfenbuttel) keeps a continual claim of blood rights as the Representatives of the Piast estates.
Official Connection To The Winged Hussars
An important component of the Black Brunswickers personal Imperial army that defeated Napoleon.
The Duke of Brunswick, as general of this guard, was also commander-in-chief of all allied armies against Napoleon (as well as recognized by the de jure King of France to have supremacy of the armies of France). These official titles ‘GeneralFeldMarschal’ held by the Duke, outranked the three Emperors(Austria, Prussia and French) in Imperial law. This was not only a titular right to wield the Imperial sword for 1,000+ years (the Dynastic Brunswick arms and names are on multiple Imperial German and Piast swords of the Emperor). This rank was also factually used and recognized in all the armies of Europe.
At the inner core of the Senior Duke’s army was the Ulan (Polish Winged Husaria). The modern version of the Piast Husaria lances and ceremonial regalia were still used on the field of battle to charge in the wars of Napoleon. They were Headed by the Dukes of Brunswick, who charged from the front of their formation. These authentic warriors were raised from the Piast Imperial Allold by blood right of the Brunswicks, from their Principality in Poland known as Wolfenbuettel-Oels or the Brunswick-Oels Principality. In 1776 the traditions and status of the winged Polish hussars had officially passed onto the Ulans. This was recognized by all Polish accounts in the sacred tradition.
In 2009 HMSH Stephen MK d’Guelph Brunswick (1867 cadet branch, 1935 successor House of Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick) had met with the officers of the present ducal guard at Wolfenbuttel. He participated with the guard in uniform, and celebrated the 200th anniversary of the restored Brunswick Guard (Herzoglich feldkorps) which Napoleon had destroyed. 90% of this guard was raised from the Oelsnica (Silesian Piast) Principality. At the event Stephen reasoned with the current representatives, argued, and put a legal notice of rightful Brunswick inheritance, to several in attendance.
Most did not know there was a falling out of this guard with their true Duke in 1830. It was in the 16th year of the restored reign of the rightful duke of Wolfenbuttel Brunswick. This guard apparently sided with a new illegal constitutional parliament and version of the state, presided over by England and an illegal Regent (William). Some say the independent Brunswick parliament directed them under the Regent. Nevertheless, the several illegal occupations, including by Prussia, were mostly rejected by the Brunswick Parliament. However these were 100% rejected by the House of Wolfenbuttel (in official protests as acts of war) presided over by the Chief Duke in exile. Within the Brunswick city (principality) most did not understand they were still supporting this wrongful junior branch *Hanover rather than the elder *Wolfenbuettel. The notice of rightful succession was recorded at the great celebration, with a crowd of over 20,000 people there in Wolfenbuettel. The Wolfenbuttel city has remained the domicle of the rightful chief capital principality of the Dukedom (mini-Empire) for most of the last 500 years.
The Piast Dynasty is one of several other Dynasties of which Wolfenbuttel holds the Chief rank. (Culmination of the Imperial Dynasties of Este, Guelph, Romanov, Witukindischer, Billungischer, Ottonian, East-Frisian, Yngling, Gothia). Today East Frisia, as well as East Saxony /Eastphalia have legal contracts of inheritance for the family of Wolfenbuttel (who never made business with the illegal entities created by the junior branch of Hanover during a limited Regency).
Under Piast rules of succession, the female lines can also inherit when there are no males. This was accepted as law in Poland.
The Polish King Louis, of the Piast Dynasty, did get agreement from the confederated Nobility (Regnicolae Regni Poloniae) promising to accept his daughters as the Royal heirs of Poland at his passing.
Upon meetings of the whole ‘community of the realm’ it was formulated that daughters of the last Piast Monarch could inherit all.
In the Polish system, all Royals needed this consent, whether hereditary males or not. This mainly emphasizes the lengths the Piast House was able to exert the practice of the House law for female line inheritance. The whole assembly of the Polish true state had consented to the honoring the Piast code of Female succession, and this would remain valid in the succession of the line of the Brunswick Silesian-Piast Principality of Olesnica.
BRUNSWICK BEING THE ONLY PROBABLE SUCCESSOR OF THE PIASTS
(the subject realms being of Poland, Galicia-Volhynia, Mazovia, Silesia and Bohemia)’
Not well known – we must raise awareness!
Much of this is not well known as the House of Brunswick has been suppressed for being too Anti-Habsburg, Anti-Prussian, and making the most war on Napoleon and France. These larger fights are among many other more recent political situations that have made the topic less known.
The Piast Brunswick succession must be once again widely circulated for the world to know that the succession was effected via marriage through the female line, to the last Piast princess. This last Piast inheritance of Oels was inherited down through to our line as being the nephew successor and firstborn head of the House of Brunswick. However in this article we will alsodemonstrate about a dozen other lines to the Piasts (including the Griffin Piasts). At the earliest foundation of the Houses of Brunswick (both the new and older houses) were descendants of the Piasts the main stakeholders of Brunswick. These Piast Nobles married to the heads of the House of Brunswick and Luneburg (Wolfenbuettel), and their children married several Piasts and Polish While Oels is a settled matter of international law inheritance, still we demonstrate more evidence herein that solidifies not only the rights of Brunswick came from Piasts but rights of Piasts often came from Brunswick. Therefore it is indisputable on many levels, the Brunswick claim to Piast inheritance as the only probable successors.
Presently the de jure government of Olesnica Poland (Piast Alloidial Realm) continues to operate in exile and is valid according to the most skeptical attorneys of international law. All has been confirmed against the greatest contests of prescriptive law, house law, and in international law. These Silesian royal titles continue to be used not only by Brunswick, but also Saxony. This article is mainly to revive awareness. We cannot have these truths forgotten by the major population for too much longer. The longer it goes without being discussed or understood, the less relevant it may be to restoring the de jure Polish Nobility to their rightful places in society.
For this reason every person plays an active role in the monarchy at this stage by raising awareness of the Piast successor house. Raise the Brunswick-Oels banner high, just as the Ulan Hussaria did in many battles for Brunswick. The Ulans ceremonial guard continues to do parade events, renactments, weddings and participate in other royal celebrations.
Pomerania (and Stettin) was also well known as a Brunswick stronghold until Napoleon.
The crested Brunswick coat of arms (with Stettin shield upper right)
Arms painted after the accession in Lüneburg of Otto and Friedrich in 1434
The caption reads: Otto post Otto regnabit tercius Otto herzog von Brunswick
The main crested coat of arms is surrounded by the arms of honburg, stettin, halbermond, ebertstein, cronstorff and welffen.
In the earlier periods Pomerania was held as a fief from Saxony. This was well known that in the 1160s-1170s the Dukes of Pomerania performed their duty as vassals who assisting Henry the Lion in war. They ultimately capitulated to the German Emperor to become protected as Imperial princes during the Empire’s war against Henry the Lion.
Brunswick was long established in Stettin as Governors till the early 1800s. In the 1500s Brunswick dukes who already had much Piast blood, were also born into the Pomeranian Piast Griffin house. The House Gryfici (Świebodzice) of Piast Nobility. We also have records well into the 1200’s of this branch of Piasts marrying into the Royal House of Brunswick.
Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1276-1318) had by her marriage to the Silesian Piast Duke Henry III of Glogów birthed nine children, seven of them became Monarchs who ruled Poland (primarily Piast Silesian realms). She remained Regent of all the Piast realms at the death of her husband, (except Glogów, which was given to her by Henry III in his will as her dower) until 1312.
Barnim III (c. 1300 – 14 August 1368), the ruling Griffin Piast Duke of Pomerania-Stettin, married Agnes of Brunswick, first child of Henry II d’Greece of Brunswick, from which this branch of Griffin Piasts descend.
Sophie of Pomerania, daughter of Wartislaw VI, the Duke of Pomerania (Piast Griffins), in 1388 married Henry the Mild, the Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg. He ascended the throne in 1400. They (both Princess Sophie of Poland and Duke Henry the Mild) are the progenitors of all subsequent Brunswick heirs, thus making the House of Brunswick all at least half Piast by blood.
In the 1400’s are several more examples, such as Duke Casmir of Pomerania marrying duchess Katherine of Brunswick-Luneburg(daughter of Bernard I, the brother of Emperor Frederick of Brunswick, which is the direct line of today’s family), and after her death he married her niece Joanna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen. Then she in like manner married Barnhim, the Duke of Pomerania.
Obviously with ruling Dukes of Brunswick in Stettin it explains why from the 1300’s to 1500’s that several of the Mayors and City Council of Members Stettin had the name Brunsvik. The Hungarian Counts of Brunswik de Korompa has a history of being from this Pomeranian branch, a cadet Branch of Brunswick. So cadets of Brunswick were were integrated into the Nobility of Hungary. More information: http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Brunswik_von_Korompa_family
Henry V Forefather of the Brunswick-Luneburg (Present ducal house-in-exile)
Probably one of the most important marriages securing the older house of Brunswick to the newer (founded in 1465) as a Piast Noble house, was Catherine (Katarina) of Pomerania-Wolgast. She was the daughter of Eric II, the Duke of Pomerania (Piast Griffins). In 1465 she married Henry IV, the Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg. He ascended the throne in 1473. He founded the present house of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel that rules today. Her son Henry V became ruling duke of Brunswick and Luneburg under the which remains today the only line that can produce the senior Monarch, ruling this senior dynastic line of house of Brunswick and Luneburg, with all the sub-principalities.
The second wife of Henry V was Sophia Jagiellon of Poland (who was Brienne Regent of Jerusalem), daughter Sigismund I the Jagiellon King of Poland (who ushered in the “Polish Golden Age”), and she became a duchess of Brunswick. Her step son Julius was Prince-Bishop of Minden. He, like his father, also became ruling prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel, ruling Prince Luneburg and Calenburg from 1568 until 1584.
One of the daughters of Henry V was Clara of Brunswick and Luneburg. She married Bogislaw XIII, and she was the mother of the very last ruling Piast Dukes of Stettin and Pomeriania. One of her sons also married again to a Brunswick royal. Her son Duke Ulrich of Pomerania married Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel.
So we see from the peak of the Brunswick Sovereigndom till this present time, the Polish Nobility has remained an important family element. This included not only from Pomeranian branches, but the Silesian Piasts, and even from the Polish-Lithuanian Jagiellon lines.
Not only the younger son of Bogislaw XIII, but also his eldest daughter princess Clara Maria of Pomerania married Brunswick Nobility, the Duke August the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel, who in the last half of his life, from 1635 became the ruling prince of the house. She did not produce him an heir, though after her death, his next wife produced him several. He and several other Brunswick spouses to the last Piasts Nobles outlived them as final heirs of the Piasts. Brunswick inherited the last Piast sovereignty both in name and in possessions until the annexation of Prussia. Since then Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel has been operating as a government-in-exile.
Leading professors of Francofurtanae University also wrote among the illustrious Nobility of Brunswick, was the succession of the Dukes of Pomerania and Stettin. More materials came forward as this university published in latin, on our ancestry as successors of Charlemagne, and of the Italian Kings, of Ferrara, Saxony, Bavaria and even the Nobility of Carinthia! (as of course is more widely affirmed by the specialist historians on the Este / Azzo House Nobility). It should be noted that 5 of the last 5 dukes of Pomerania and Stettin were dukes of Brunswick, of this line mentioned in the text. Our house being the only survivors of this branch of the Piast Griffin Nobility, not only the sole successors of the Silesian Piasts as is our name and sovereignty still valid legally in international law, the principality of Oels-Bernstadt. Page below is from “Genealogia Illvstrissimae Domvs Dvcvm Brvnsvic. Et Lvnaebvrg. Continva Patrvm Serie, Svpra Septintos[!] annos, e regio Langobardorum sanguine, repetita, Ad Illvstrissimos Principes Ac Dominos, D. Ivlivm Ducem eius familiae clarißimum, & D. Ernestvm Lvdovicvm Ducem Pomeraniae, hujus generum”
Pankraz Krüger. Published December 22, 1576
the full document may be read at this url https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=mqlFr_RlNo8C&rdid=book-mqlFr_RlNo8C&rdot=1
The Last Griffin Piast Duke
By marriage, all of the children of Bogislaw XIII, the last Duke of Pomerania, were cadets of Brunswick-Lunenburg, including
Duke Philip II
Bogislaw XIV, the last ruling duke of Pomerania
George II, Duke of Pomerania
Ulrich, Duke of Pomerania
Anna de Croy, the last member of the dynasty
Clara Maria of Pomerania-Barth
after this house was extinguished at the death of Anna de Croy, the rule of Brunswick at Stettin was the status quo till the 19th Century. However, many wars against France, against Austria, and even Brunswick against Prussia and the coupe’s of Russia, Courland, and Poland did not slow down our preminence in the last Piast strongholds, as this was secured mainly by family inheritance.
Duke Philip II, one of the last Piast Royals, also was a duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg[cadet].
Philip II together with his seven siblings were the last of this line of Piast Royals. They all were Royalty of the House of Brunswick through their mother, and the numerous Brunswick ancestors.
Several of the subsequent Governors of Stettin were dukes of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel.
August Wilhelm, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Bevern, was governor of Stettin till his death in 1781. More than half a dozen dukes of Brunswick had already held a governing position in the region.
Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel, was commander-in-chief of the allied armies of the H.R.E.[Austria] and of Prussia. He was killed from a bullet wound sustained on the battlefield of Jena.
Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel, commander of the main Prussian army at Auerstedt, was badly wounded and had to leave the battle, as a result was the Capituation of Stettin in 1806.
It is still evident in the history, and our family name Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels
Since 1785 this last Piast Family title has been officially in international law, recognized as Brunswick Dynastic inheritance, with sovereign claims since then remaining uninterrupted through to today. No matter of the de facto usurping states, in international law Brunswick remains legal (de jure) princes in exile. This is confirmed on numerous measurements of soveriegnty, and there is so much evidence it really tips the scales. The sovereignty of Brunswick was printed in the money/ minted coins, maps, history books, and most of all, demonstrated publicly in the titles, the family name, and armorial bearings of the House of “Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels”. This title of Oels and Oelsnica-Bernstadt is also co-defended by the living Sovereign Royal House of Saxony. The de jure King of Saxony co-defends these living family rights and continuation of Oels to be a living sovereign principality. The de facto regimes now occupying the zones have not been recognized as legitimate. There are minted many coins over the centuries commemorating the continuation of the Piast dynasty, and now in the House of Brunswick. These all reached a wider circulation among the subjects, with the understanding that the last Piasts have continued. For example, the marriage who continued the line, celebrated in the coins etc (depicted herein).
(Penny Cyclopedia 1850)
Our House remains lineal successors of the original Piast Dynastic alloidial realm of the high Nobility of the Piasts, from the Principality of Oels-Bernstadt. The family title passing to the Scion of our House, Stephen Michael II. The passing to our house had come originally through marriage of the last surviving Piast Princess in 1647 when it descended with her husband duke Silvius Nimrod of Wurtemberg, founder of the line of Wurtmberg-Oels.
When this elder line of the Piasts (Silesian – Oelsnica etc) was declared extinct in 1695, this had no effect in house, law to the ignorance of many. The House law had always allowed for females, and had no strict Salian type law of only the firstborns getting the inheritance. It automatically legally passed to the next rightful heirs. When the last male had died in 1679 the titles already were set to successfully pass to the next family members who were in line of succession. They did pass accordingly to the earlier Confederate houses of the Piasts. First the alloid of Oelsnica passed to the House of Bohemia(Münsterberg), then to Wolfenbuettel-Brunswick.
For Poland the Piast female line inheritance was formally accepted in the Radomsk declaration of 27 November 1382, on behalf of the ‘lords and the whole community’ of Wielkopolska. The House already practicing an open approach in this matter, often splitting the domains equally among all sons, or other heirs. This was in stark contrast of the strict succession rules of Agnatic primogeniture. Heirs could be chosen and this did not detract from the bloodline kinship. With this methodology it did have a cost in international law, to lose control of the greater nation, to the ownership of other Dukes, still the fabric of the house kept a blood succession available for female lines and other distant cadet lines, like those of Wolfenbuettel Brunswick who later, as lines did go extinct. So the mixing of the stronger Primogeniture tactic among the family of their peers (Brunswick) yielded the eventual re-inheriting of their ancestral lands of Olesnica.
The Piasts were the ruling Monarchs of Bohemia for some time, and for this reason it passed firstly to them. The Piast Duke Boleslaw I the Brave, who became the first King of Poland, was also the ruling Duke of Bohemia. His sons succeeded him also in these titles. The Bohemian Royals already were long established as a peerage family of the Royal House of Poland, the Piasts. Victor the Elder the Duke of Münsterberg(Royal House of Bohemia) had greatly expanded these family ties with the Piasts, as did his father King George of Bohemia.
At the time of this succession of Oels back into Bohemian hands, Victor had strengthened this Piast blood right of succession with several marriages. He married Sophie, daughter of Duke Boleslaw II of Cieszyn of the Silesian Piasts. His daughter married the Silesian Piast Duke Casimir II of Cieszyn, who gave him the birth of Frederick of Cieszyn and Wenceslaus II, Duke of Cieszyn. Victor’s sister Ludmilla had married the Silesian Piast Duke Frederick I of Legnica. At this same time of this passing of Olesnica these many interesting details transpired which evidence the closeness of the Silesian Piast house with that of Munsterberg (Bohemia). From 1495 till 1695 Oelsnica remained subordinate to it’s Piast House of Silesia, although it had been put under the rulership of the Bohemian House of Munsterberg. The Piast allegiances were evident from the very start. From 1488 till 1498 Ludmilla had assumed the regency of the Piast Duchies of Chojnow, Legnica and Lubin on behalf of her minor sons. According to the will of her Piast husband Frederick I, she also was given the direct sovereignty of Brzeg and Olwa to hold herself. After the death of her father (King George) in 1471, his widow proposed Prince Vladislaus (eldest son of King Casimir IV of Poland) as his successor. Shortly after, the Polish prince became in King Vladislaus II of Bohemia, and after having succeeded Matthias Corvinus in 1490, he also reigned as King of Hungary. Although King of Hungary, still Silesia and Moravia was retained in the hands and titles of the Corvinus family. History says this competing Hungarian Royal line went extinct in the deaths of the children of John Corvinus.
This line of Piasts, descendant of the Polish, Hungarian and Angevin Imperial lines, had passed down the succession of the house with the successors of Munsterberg, in Wurtemberg-Oels for Centuries. Finally when that (Württemberg) male line became extinct in 1792, it went as per the original Piast House law, that the Piast inheritance can pass by choice, and by female branches. So it passed to the last daughter and heiress Sophia Frederica Charlotte, to her husband Duke Frederick Augustus who died in 1805. Dying childless, per house law the estates go to the firstborn of the sovereign royal house. So it passed it to the heir apparent, firstborn prince of Wolfenbuttel (who in 1806 when his father was killed in battle, he became the ruling prince of Wolfenbuttel-Luneburg and Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick Monarchy). So Duke Frederick William of Brunswick, from whence has continually been in the House of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel. This principality of Oels to this day, remains a valid sovereign title in international law as a de jure principality of the Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels government in exile.
This Silesian (and Griffin) Piast family name of Oels and coat of arms are continually used by the House of Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick, as the chief bloodline heirs of this branch. The heirship continued although there have been many occupations, including by Prussia. The occupations and usurpations have always been met with the strong legal protests, affirming the estates remain for the heirs pursuant to public, dynastic house law, treaty and international law.
Several of the present and valid Suffrage populations of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel (d’Este-Guelph) lay just outside our Silesian principle realms in the name and titles of our house. These recognized Piast family inheritance realms included.
Piast titles have included,
King of Poland
King of Rus’
Duke of the Polans
Duke of Poland
Duke of Krakow
Duke of Kuyavia
Duke of Mazovia
Duke of Sandomierz
Duke of Greater Poland
Duke of Silesia
and several other ducal titles (see Dukes of Silesia)
Duke of Sieradz-Łęczyca
Duke of Bohemia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Duchy of Bohemia
and many others.
These (together with other Goths) and kindred peoples, consist of suffrage populations who are entitled to protections by the House of Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick.
Kingdom of Poland
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Duchy of Mazovia
Duchy of Silesia
several Duchies of Silesia
Prussian Principalities of Silesia
Duchy of Bohemia
Silesian Piasts, later became the oldest surviving branch of the dynasty
These countries have all held that upon the lawful extinguishing of a royal house, a provision for an irregular offspring of the house may ascend to the throne. This comes also via the rights of election (referendum).
There is interest in these realms to re-align with the Piast heirs of Brunswick, as our House d’Este-Guelph Brunswick has maintained the stances of enemy and of arch-rivals against the Austrian Habsburgs (Guelph vs Ghibelline) and for some times against France, Russia, and Prussian governments. Also because the family is staunchly Christian,at a time Christians are under persuctions, all the while the vast majority of the populations remain Christian.
More Information on Oels
One of several coins confirming and some afterwards jubilee records set marking first in 500 years to rule for 50 years consecutively. Realized in the Brunswick husband of the last Piast Princess! There are many coins celebrating the Brunswick inheriting the last Piast sovereignty, which is legal also today in our family name D’Este Guelph Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels, Senior Branch, House of Welf. This medal was stamped on the death of the deceased on November 4, 1789 – Frederic Zofia Charlotta Augusta – the wife of the Brunswick-Oleśnica duke Frederic Augustus, diameter 38 mm, weight 19.7 g.
One of several coins confirming and some afterwards jubilee records set marking first in 500 years to rule for 50 years consecutively. The Brunswick husband of the last Piast Princess! All the coins Prove or celebrate Brunswick inheriting the last Piast sovereignty, which is legal also today in our family name D’Este Guelph Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels, Senior Branch, House of Welf Obverse: head to the right, around the inscription: FRIEDERICVS AVGVSTVS BRVNSV.OLSN.DVX. Under the head, AS signature (Alt Stadt, according to others A. Ambramson).
Reverse: the figure of the goddess of adornment standing next to the column; in the episode, the inscription: FID.PRAEST.MDCCXCIII; around the inscription: DVCATVS OLSNENS.
The horse column – the coat of arms of the Braunschweig coat – is visible on the medal column.
Date 1793 refers to the acquisition of the Duchy of Oleśnica.
The author of the medalist’s album placed this medal in the masonic medals department. However that may be inappropriate, as Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick had banned all freemasonry in Germany. The column in the image bears our Welfów D’Este Guelph Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels, Senior Branch, House of Welf coat of arms.
The medal (coin 2/3 thaler) was blessed for the 200th year anniversary on September 1st 1993 for the homage of the state of the Brunswick-Oleśnica principality for the surviving husband, His Highness Frederick August D’Este Guelph Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels, Senior Branch, House of Welf of the last Piast Princess heir of their last alloidial inherited sovereignty.
Here is an artwork of the Brunswick family tree from the 15th Century. As showing one Century worth of the Royal and Imperial houses Brunswick descends from. You can see a large part of the last of the Piast Dynasty (the Polish original Royal House. You can see the Baltic Pomeranian Griffin-Piasts. It lists four Royal Polish bloodlines that remain in the Brunswick family in name and title as active in international law today).
https://www.facebook.com/houseofguelph/photos/a.637696052975277/2280847188660147/?type=3&theater (save photo down and zoom in) From “Stamm und Regentenbaum der Hertogen zu Branschweig” M DC LXXVII:
More info on getting involved is found now at facebook, on gothiantemplar.org, and other sites. Email firstname.lastname@example.org for more information.
Brunswick was not only a peer of the Piasts, but also of the Romanovs. The marriage of Tsar Ivan V’s eldest daughter to Duke Ulric of Brunswick Wolfenbuettel was one of many such relationships. His son Duke Ivan VI of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel was crowned Emperor of Russia in 1740. By numerous methods of Russian law, Russian Dynastic law, and Brunswick Dynastic law, these Russian estate titles of Romanov-Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick passed to the head duke of Brunswick in 1764. Charles I of Brunswick had multiple sons fighting against Russia in the wars that followed the death of Emperor Ivan VI von Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick.