YAHSHUA COVENANT DAWN CHOIR, Culdees’ Orthodox Institutions of Offering Incense

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A priestly commission for Culdees for the Celtic Orthodox Rite of Incense. Notwithstanding the numerous other Orthodox Rites of Christendom who use the incense similarly. THIS WRITING IS ALSO A SUPLEMENT TO THE REGIONAL CULDEE CHOIR RINGS

Utilizing the English Orthodox Liturgy at times of prayer (the Book of Common Prayer), which is rooted in the Sarum Missal ceremonies of incense, holy water, etc. Also see “Hours of Prayer (A Collection of Private Devotions) English Orthodox Liturgy of 1560“.

 Mal 1:11 “For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto My name, and a pure offering: for My name shall be great among the heathen, saith YAHWEH of hosts.”

For His Royal Priesthood to obey His commandment to burn incense at morning and evening while praising His name. This is commissioned by YAHWEH, as demonstrated in the Scriptures to be best done at strategic “high places”, places He is placing His name where we have made Biblical altars and at strategic times. Historical evidence demonstrates that the New Testament church continued this practice worldwide.

Often we are to go on a pilgrimage to these areas He is placing His name. To gather there with other believers and spend 10% of our income as a second tithe of enjoying and rejoicing there with your whole family, see Deuteronomy 14:23-26.

We are encouraged to erect altars in such places where He is placing His name:

Exodus 20:24 “An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.”

Deuteronomy 12:5-7 “But unto the place which the LORD your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put his name there, [even] unto his habitation shall ye seek, and thither thou shalt come: And thither ye shall bring your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and heave offerings of your hand, and your vows, and your freewill offerings, and the firstlings of your herds and of your flocks: And there ye shall eat before the LORD your God, and ye shall rejoice in all that ye put your hand unto, ye and your households, wherein the LORD thy God hath blessed thee.” (and vs 26 & 27)


For our choirs who pray during the canonical hours to be equipped with information regarding our hope in Christ. This is just a small part of the information, agreed by all Christians about rising early and starting your day with prayer. Encouraging more to gather for the morning prayers is an aim, but not the full purpose of this document. We cannot judge if others can’t join together so we don’t make it an issue, but will encourage all to use their prayer closets at home, a holy place of prayer set up in each house for the hours of prayer (at least 2 times per day).  However, the more the merrier. More love, more fellowship, more taking dominion for Christ’s love. It would be of the highest aims to form choirs at least of twelve in our Order assemblies. These are as the Celtic church has done throughout the ages in spiritual warfare and victory. David kept the prayer times, and we should also, and he did so “from high place to high place”, the places of blessings.

This is part of the coming Kingdom age of YAHWEH, where there will be Davidic worship totally restored within that church that is to be without spot or wrinkle. (note: This isn’t burning the actual type of incense that the Aaronic priests burned, but it is at least using frankincense that was used in the surrounding national covenantal worship of our God.)




1. Being a Morning Star in Yahshua

2. Scriptural background on “Hour of Incense”

3. Three places and three heavens

4. Miracles during the “Hour of Incense”

5. Positive verses on burning incense at high places

6. High places that are below sea level, and where churches are built, etc

7. Global Choir Ring (Culdee Choir)

8. The Didache says burn incense often, thanking for the incense of Christ during communion

9. Apocryphal witnesses concerning incense.

10. Free-will Thanksgiving/Praise Offerings (not sacrifices), with fruit of the lips

11. Communion Fire in the Early Church “A Live Coal”

12. What is the “Fervor” used in the Liturgy?

11. First Century Founders of our Celtic(Hebrew Choir)


Being a Morning Star in Yahshua

Psa 113:3         “From the rising of the sun unto the going down of the same YAHWEH’s name is to be praised.”

Mal 1:11            “For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering: for my name shall be great among the heathen, saith YAHWEH of hosts.”

Isa 41:25           “I have raised up one from the north, and he shall come: from the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name: and he shall come upon princes as upon morter, and as the potter treadeth clay.”

Isa 59:19           “So shall they fear the name of the LORD from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun. When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of YAHWEH shall lift up a standard against him.”

 Day star, morning star, son of the morning are all referring to the same title of being a “judge” which can be claimed by who ever steps into the office at any given time.

 The morning star is Yahshua, and we can also be morning stars.

 2Pe 1:19 “We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:..”

 Rev 2:25-28       “But that which ye have already hold fast till I come. And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations: And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father. And I will give him the morning star.”‏

‎Job 38:7           “When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?‏”

Who is the morning Star and the Bright Morning star? http://www.letusreason.org/Biblexp228.htm See Rev 22:16: Jesus(Yahshua) is called THE “bright morning star”: Bright morning star (lampros-1) shining a) brilliant proinos- pertaining to the morning. Gr.aster-a star.‏)

Malachi 4:2:      “But to you who fear My name The Sun of Righteousness shall arise with healing in [His] wings” This concept of “dawn” is applied to the Messiah.

Psa 110:3 “Thy people [shall be] willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.”‏

Remember it says any time the great warriors conquered a greater enemy, that they first “rose up early in the morning” no doubt praising the name of YAHWEH like the first verses saying David would do, speaking His name etc.‏

You will dash nations like a potter’s vessel and fall upon kings like morter etc, when raising early to praise YAHWEH‏. As Yahshua said, where the body is the eagles will be gathered. (Luke 17:37) and we shall be as a thief in the night, though all these events happen in the day (two plowing, one taken etc).

1Th 5:2-4 2        “For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night. 3 For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape. 4 But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief.”

1Th 5:5-9 5        “Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. 6 Therefore let us not sleep, as do others; but let us watch and be sober. 7 For they that sleep sleep in the night; and they that be drunken are drunken in the night. 8 But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for an helmet, the hope of salvation. 9 For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ,”

As our King of Kings had promised not only to share His many crowns but to share His throne with those of us who do not reject knowledge, and do indeed love and delight in His law He gave to Moses.

Also listen to The Morning Stars by Pastor Leroy Crouch


Scriptural background on “Hour of Incense”

 Luke 1:10 “And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.”

Numerous scriptures say it was a good thing they burned incense at the high places before they had a temple, and even to light the incense everywhere at (the hour of incense) dawn, to make special praises to His name at this time. That aspect is outlined more in the following sections.

David and Solomon would light incense at the high places. However, this section is more on the uniform national practice of incense at the tabernacle. There was a special type of incense offered at the Tabernacle by Levites descended of the house of Aaron. They were the only ones who could enter the tabernacle without being slain by YAHWEH or another Levite. They were chosen to light a special type of incense within the Holy Place “at morning and evening”. They would cast lots on who would get their turn to burn it (see Luke 1:9).


Morning is accepted to be when you can still see three stars, including the “bright morning star”, Venus(or North Star). Also evening is accepted to be the time when you can see the first three stars, as the sun is setting. At that time the “daystar, or evening star” (Venus or the North star) is visible.

The whole camp of Levites would pray before and after these periods in what is know as “the hour of prayer”, which were great services before the “morning and evening sacrifices” where all Israelites would confess their sins over the animals to be sacrificed in their place. They would blow special silver trumpets there with the whole nation gathered together in prayer at morning(dawn) and at evening. Some Scriptures call this time “the rising of the sun”, others call it “the morning”.

Yahshua is now the “High Priest” who is in the Holy of Holies, and has torn the veil that was between the “Holy Place” and the “Holy of Holies” for His priests to have access twenty four hours a day.  The Morning and Evening incense was not burned inside the Holy of Holies, but on the other side of the veil, only by Aaronic descended Levites in the Holy Place.

This does not mean the other realms aren’t still fiercely guarded. There is still war in the heavens.

Also see “Hours of Prayer (A Collection of Private Devotions) English Orthodox Liturgy of 1560“.



The three places “Outter Court, Inner Court, and Holy of Holies” still exist, as YAHWEH commanded Moses build them as a “pattern of things in the heavens” preceded the building of it, and was only to teach us to align in the Spirit. Our bodies are now the tabernacles of the Holy Spirit, and when we sanctify all three parts of our being , Spirit, and Soul and Body (1Thes 5:23 “sanctify your spirit, AND your soul, AND your body” three in one.) then we are operating in the image of God how He made us to be operating in harmony, as YAHWEH operates in harmony in Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. But this is a major subject, so much it says we will be transformed by the renewing of our minds in the knowledge of the image of God (Col 3:10), and that the warfare is against every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God (2 Cor 10:5).

Paul talks about consciously leaving his body and going to the third heaven, even up into paradise. Normally our body restricts us to only seeing things “through a glass darkly” in the realms of the physical, but one day we will see “face to face”, “unveiled”, seeing with our true eyes of the spirit.


We who still have physical bodies will indeed be attacked by the beings and entities not only in the physical realm, but also in the realm of the mind, the 2nd heaven. When the veil was broken by Christ between the 2nd and 3rd heavens that doesn’t automatically mean there are no more 1st heaven, and neither does it mean that all the heavens were rolled together like a scroll YET! (Read Isaiah 3:4). The veil which just because it was torn, doesn’t mean our body nor our mind will always be on the other side of it! On the contrary, most people’s minds are many levels below it, not just one or two levels. Some are even deceived into other lower heavens as outline in the book of Enoch. Only 1/3 of our being known as our Spirit is on the other side of the veil permanently in the Holy of Holies in Christ, seated with Him in heavenly places. The body and the mind are very much outside the Holy of Holies, but the mind has the ability to go into the Spirit. If the mind is walking in the Spirit it is possible also the body can be lifted into lower realms within the 2nd heaven. Yes the book of Elijah talks about 7 heavens within the 2nd heaven, as well as 7 heavens within the 3rd heaven (realm of the Holy of Holies). Satanic / Demonic realms are in the 2nd heaven. Only those of us bought by the blood of the Lamb can bring our minds into obedience with the eternal law/word of YAHWEH and ascend into these Holy places. Those who are redeemed by the blood can enter, and at those moments our full attidue is loving His law, rather than “falling short” in sin transgressions. His law will first be written on our heart, so it is our passion and desire. The law is our basis, not an accident that might happen on a path where we choose to remain in sin.(Roman 7 “His law is Spiritual, but we are carnal sold under sin.”) For those of us born from above, our spirit is always in the Holies of Holies. We can become separated from our spirit  when we become less led by the Spirit. The Scripture even talks about the Holy Spirit will lift off of us, as David prayed “cast me not away from Thy presence YAHWEH, and take not thy Holy Spirit from me”, and Paul prayed that he also become severed or  “cast away” from the Holy Spirit. Yahshua said the Spirit is “upon Him”. Now the Holy Spirit can not only come “upon” us and lives, but also live in our bodies. However, that doesn’t always He will remain there! It’s a daily choice and must be cultivated each morning. We must walk in the Spirit, and “put on the Spirit , the new man”, like a garment, which is talking now about our own Spirit body in Him. It says we put on garments of righteousness (law keeping) that we do not be found naked in sins/unrighteousness and bring a shame. Only with using our own spirit can we open up the wings to ascend, but this also takes the wings of our 2nd heaven body, our soul-mind to think Biblically, and “let the mind of Christ be in you.”

It is a daily struggle we’re told where your mind of the flesh wars against your mind of the spirit. Not only inside of ourselves and our own flesh, but it says we also wrestle against other spiritual powers, principalities and the rulers of the darkness of this world, and spiritual wickedness in high places. We must put it in correct order, just as Christ said “I only do what my Father has given me to do” we must say nothing, and believe nothing in our attitudes (2nd heaven) unless it is from our spirit. Then in our 1st heaven bodies we will have dominion on earth as His will is being done through righteous living. The Holy Spirit then helps our bodies in this realm, just as Jesus said He would send the Comforter, the Helper, in this physical realm. Just as Jesus said the Holy Spirit will not do anything accept praising the Son, so our bodies must do nothing but what is in righteous order from Biblical attitudes from the Spirit, that are in our soul, with right thinking. We become part of the image of YAHWEH God, as He prayed and we are to pray foremost to be one as He is one with Him. All three to be active in the now, the great I AM. The I AM being is the present tense operation of moving above or below, it’s a choice in the attitude toward His wonderful ancient laws which will not pass away even after the new heavens and new earth. He Who was, Who is, and Is to come, must have the present tense operational choice to ascend in His Scriptural laws for us in the now.

In the now we have a spiritual warfare first and foremost. The weapons of our warfare “cast down every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God”. To do this we must look how our forefathers did it successfully. This is what this writing is all about. Monestaries of twelve singing monks were setup all over the lands of the ancient Celtic church. Interceding and using our spiritual weaponry will cast down such evil spirits that are not physical. We be vigilant as He told us to “watch ye therefore, and pray always that we may be counted worthy to escape the things that shall come to pass…” (Luke 21:36).


Miracles During Hour of Incense

 Miracles regularly occurred immediately before and after the two periods of the day known as the “hour of incense” or “time of incense” in Luke 1:9. This was also called “the hour of prayer”. Anyone who could not come to the temple had their own local services, which included “offering incense in every place” (Mal 1:11).

In Acts 3:1 we are told the story of the healing of the lame man at the Temple through the hands of St. Peter and St. John. It says they were on their way “to the Temple at the Hour of Prayer”.

In Acts 10:3 and 10:9 the New Testament Peter and Cornelius the Gentile made preparations to pray during “the hour of prayer” within their houses, and specifically Peter upon the rooftop. It says during these specific times they made special prayers were visited by Angels and had supernatural visions.

We are the ones “redeemed by the blood” in Revelation 5:8-9 who have vials full of “odours” which is the word for incense. (Strong’s # 2368)

And when he had taken the book, the four beasts (people who are full of life, Zoe in Greek , Chai in Hebrew) and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth. And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands; Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing. Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing. And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever. And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.”


Positive verses on burning incense at high places

It was at the great high place at Gibeon where Solomon continued to go after having build the Temple. It was there that YAHWEH came to Solomon in a dream asking him what he had wanted and Solomon responded that he wanted wisdom:

1Ki 3:4-5 “And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that was the great high place: a thousand burnt offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar. In Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night: and God said, Ask what I shall give thee. ….”

 When Saul was anointed King over Israel, these very important “high places” are mentioned five times in a positive way from 1Samuel Chapter 9, verses 12-25.

Please read 1 Samuel 9:12-25.

Here five times we read “high places” are associated as an important part of the anointing. A place for crowning Kings, a place for His elect to assemble.

Most of the time in scripture “high places” are good and life strengthening places.

Deu 32:13 “He made him ride on the high places of the earth, that he might eat the increase of the fields; and he made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock;”

Deu 33:29 Happy [art] thou, O Israel: who [is] like unto thee, O people saved by YAHWEH, the shield of thy help, and who [is] the sword of thy excellency! and thine enemies shall be found liars unto thee; and thou shalt tread upon their high places. (note the underlined is not in the original)

1Sa 10:5                      “After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where [is] the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they shall prophesy:”

1Sa 10:13                    “And when he had made an end of prophesying, he came to the high place.”

2Sa 22:34                    “He maketh my feet like hinds’ [feet]: and setteth me upon my high places.”

1Ki 3:2-4                       “before the Temple was built they sacrificed at the high place(or place where the Ark of the Covenant was kept), and burned incense there”


High places that are below sea level, and where churches are built, etc.

Strong’s # 1116 is always referring to the spiritual high places. This doesn’t necessarily mean at a physical high place. The spiritual high places can also be below sea level.

 This is demonstrated in the book of Job chapter 9 verse 8

Job 9:8                         “…treadeth upon the waves of the sea.”

This says YAHWEH treads upon the “high places” #1116, mistranslated as “waves” of the sea.

Again it’s good to look at verses with Wigrams’ Englishman’s in print, or online via http://blueletterbible.org to see all the words in the original and their definitions. However, for this case we’re only quoting this part of the verse. In the beginning of this verse KJV added the words “which alone” before the words “treadeth upon the waves of the sea”. This again was added, as we know from a plethora of scriptures covered in the previous section that not only YAHWEH treads upon the high places. It is plain and unmistakable when you do a simple check with Englishman’s, Strong’s or BlueletterBible.

So we see, while many times “high places” are at higher elevation, elevation is not the rule governing it. This shows that even at sea, or below sea level there can contain these high places. Many are buried deep below. With our advanced maps, it has been discovered one such high place at sea is directly West from Iona Scotland. Many are off the coasts of Cornwall.

In ancient times they built the churches only on leyline hubs or high places of scalar electricity (also known historically as dragon lines). Many books and maps have been written showing how churches and even city headquarters or roads themselves were built in geographic rows on these leylines. One such maps of these Crystalline gravity grids span not only countries, but also are cross continental. These maps are readily available, and are recommended to be consulted when choosing a pray place to occupy. As it says David’s feet were made like hind’s feet as He did move from “high place to high place” and we who delight in His Sabbath will be caused to ride upon such high places.


Global Choir Ring (Culdee Choir)

 Eph 5:19           “Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to YAHWEH;”

LOVE and sharing love is not only commanded, it is something we do with all our heart, soul, mind and strength to YAHWEH above all! It says nothing about loving others without first loving yourself. If you do not really learn to love yourself, you cannot REALLY love your neighbor. We have to build up OUR SPIRIT with more singing and praising our King, what He has made us for! Pure love, pure patience, self control, etc!

Please contact marshalofsalem@yahoo.com if you can fit in an hour of your time singing per day (60% certain or tentatively). You can give a range of hours where you think one hour you can fit in. For many this can even be at work (and sing under your breath), please be somewhat conservative in your estimation. If unsure then please just send us the regional time of sunrise and sunset that you can at least offer some extra praise than you do for the rest of the day.

We can also forward you songs that are 90% scripture or more, very edifying. Like a global monestary we want to fit a real CHOIR of Culdees. Yes if you’re a friend of YAHWEH you’re a Culdee(you love His ten commandments etc etc). The Abbots should be Celtic nobility to claim such titles, as they all had in their pedigrees back to ancient Israel, ie Welsh and Irish. Overall we’re not worried about fancy titles, but you will be considered a Cleric Monk of the Culdee (like I am) to get on the list for the choir calendar.

Lets say daily around 11am it’s always perfect for you to sneak in a few hymns.. then send us that! and we will unite in battle hymns straight from the word. If there are always three hours on friday then tell us that too so we can fill in a week calendar (there will normally be redundant/backup singers for each hour).

As long as 90% of your songs are a type of Scripture chorus they’re welcomed in. Song books can be provided and we welcome the exchange.

Call more gatherings, even ADVERTISE the “CULDEE CHOIR” if you are ready to form up a regional choir. Gatherings of twelve are urged at high places for such fighting against “spiritual wickedness in high places”. We want to welcome many more into our systemized Celtic Choir that follows after the style of Saint Patrick and the ancient welsh (Celtic) church rite. This choir is a Monastic style duty that goes back to the Prophet Jeremiah’s school in Ireland (where now lays his dated grave).

 Our Choir is a vital spiritual warfare for connecting with the covenants of Israel and bringing them out into experience in one accord with those singing the Scriptures in love, joy and peace. One of us can put 1,000 to flight two of us can put 10,000 to flight. There is a special covenant when two ask(or claim) anything in His name, that He will do it. He also said He is in our midst in a special way when two are gathered in His name. Our global choir claims geographic points as our bases to let the praises echo out from there to cover territories and connect with our other fellow Christian militant wherever they may be also engaged in our battles and victories in the Spirit.

It is something to do all day, but the calendar itself is something more for getting others aware and involved (not to be a distraction as it is presently under development).

Eph 5:19           “Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to YAHWEH;”

It is 24/7 but some of us have to sleep.

Col 3:16            “Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to YAHWEH.”

Psa 95:2          “Let us come before his presence with thanksgiving, and make a joyful noise unto him with psalms.”

Together in the almighty powerful name of YAHWEH Yahshua we shall prevail in casting down the rulers of the darkness of this world and spiritual wickedness in high places. It says we will prevail over the gates of hell.

Psa 149:4-6       “For the LORD taketh pleasure in his people: he will beautify the meek with salvation. Let the saints be joyful in glory: let them sing aloud upon their beds. Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and a twoedged sword in their hand;…”


Didache says burn incense often, thanking for the incense of Christ during communion

Didascalia/Didache Liturgical Text “Permit the prophets to make the Eucharist as often as they desire, And concerning the ointment,\x/ give thanks as follows: We thank you, (our) Father, for the fragrant ointment which you have made known to us through Jesus your Servant Glory to you forever! Amen“”

The Greek Oxyhrnchus Papyrus, dating from the 4th Century, the Coptic version from the 5th Century, the Greek Apostolic Constitutions as well as the Ethiopic all contain the prayer of the ointment within the Eucharist service.

“And concerning the ointment,\x/ give thanks as follows: We thank you, (our) Father, for the fragrant ointment which You have made known to us through Jesus your Servant, Glory to you forever! Amen”

In the Apostles Didascalia, after these words it says:

Whosoever comes to you, and gives thanks in this manner, receive him as a disciple of Christ. But if he preach another doctrine, different from that which Christ by us has delivered to you, such a one you must not permit to give thanks; for such a one rather affronts God than glorifies Him.

The full text as taken from the several originals is as follows: Printed in “BARNABAS AND THE DIDACHE” by Robert A. Kraft][English original, published by Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1965

Concerning the giving of thanks — in connection with the Eucharist (9.1-10.8) [§8.4-5; §9.2]

9 Now concerning the giving of thanks [cf 6.3] Give thanks in the following manner 2 First, concerning the cup: We thank you, our Father [§9.9], for the holy vine of David your servant, which you have made known to us
[§9.7] through Jesus your Servant [§9.8]. Glory to you forever! [[166]]

3 And concerning the broken loaf: We thank you, our Father, for the life and knowledge [§9.7] which you have made known to us through Jesus your Servant. Glory to you forever! 4 Just as this loaf previously was scattered on the mountains [§10.4], and when it was gathered together it became a unity, So may your Church be gathered
together from the ends of the earth into your kingdom. For glory and power are yours forever, through Jesus Christ! [§9.8.] 5 But let no one eat or drink from your Eucharist except those who are baptized [7.1-4] in the Lord’s Name [§9.8] For the Lord also has spoken concerning this: Do not give what is holy to dogs [Matt 7.6]

10 And after you have been filled, give thanks as follows:

  1. We thank you, Holy Father, for your holy Name [§9.8] which you have made to dwell in our hearts; and for the knowledge [§9.7] and faith and immortality which you have made known to us through Jesus your Servant. Glory to you forever! [[167]]3. You, Almighty Master [§9.9], created everything for your Name’s sake; you have given food and drink to men\q for their pleasure, so that they might give you thanks.\q/And to us you have graciously given spiritual food and drink [see 8.2], and life eternal through Jesus\r/ your Servant. [[168]] 4. Most of all, we
    thank you because you are mighty.\s/ Glory to you forever!\t/ 5. Lord, remember your Church- rescue it from all evil [see 8.2] and perfect it [§9.5] in your love- and gather it, the sanctified one,\u/ from the four winds into your kingdom which you have prepared for it. For power and glory are yours forever!\t/ [[169]] 6. Let grace come,\v/ and this world pass away [§9.5].\t/ Hosanna to the God\w/ of David [§9.9] If anyone is holy, let him come; if anyone is not, let him repent [see 15.3] Marana Tha (Our Lord, Come). Amen 7. But permit the prophets [11.3-12] to give thanks as they see fit [§8.3]. 8. And concerning the ointment,\x/ give thanks as follows: We thank you, (our) Father, for the fragrant ointment which you have made known to us through Jesus your Servant Glory to you forever! Amen

\q/ The Cop fragment begins here, reading “…to the sons of man” and lacking “so that they might give you thanks.”
\r/ So Cop (see Georg); but H lacks “Jesus.”
\s/ Georg adds “and good” (cf. ApCo, “faithful and true”).
\t/ Cop adds “Amen” in 10.4, 5, 6a.
\u/ Cop lacks “the sanctified one” (cf. ApCo).
\v/ Cop has “May the Lord come” (see ApCo, which places “Marana Tha” [10.6d] here; cf. Rev. 22.20).
\w/ So H (Georg?). Cop has “house of David” (cf. Origen to Matt. 21.9, 15), and ApCo “son of David” (Matt. 21.9, 159. Possibly Did. 10.6b originally read “to David’s Lord” (see Ps. 110.1), which easily could give rise to the three preserved readings. A similar textual problem is found in Acts 7.46, “house/ God/ [Lord?] of Jacob.”
\x/ The prayer for the “ointment” (perfume) is found in slightly divergent forms in Cop and ApCo, but it is lacking in H and Georg (see §8.2). Its style parallels (imitates?) 9.2, 3; 10.2.
[[@@RAK– Note in margin of text: Gere[[?]] CTINOYYI = incense]]


An important verse was also left out of the Didache about how to do the Eucharist (give thanks) with incense and burning smoke. The new versions have omitted this practice. However the original Coptic Payrus and any older Syriac versions include the verse as below. To highlight it, I show it to you from the Apostles Didascalia, when it covers how to do communion. It’s the same text of the Didache. Chapter XXVI is what most know, but the next verses of XXVII are typically removed from the newer printed versions of the Didache.

Immediately after the text “permit the prophets to make the Eucharist as often as they desire” are the words of the prayer of giving thanks for the ointment and for the immortality He made known to us by His Son Jesus.


Apocryphal Witnesses Concerning Incense

Jubilees 3:27 “And on that day on which Adam went forth from the Garden, he offered as a sweet savour an offering, frankincense, galbanum , and stacte, and spices in the morning with the rising of the sun from the day when he covered his shame.” (The Book of Jubilees Pub 1902, Trinity College at Dublin. Translator / Editor’s Note, Pg. 54: “The daily incense – offering began after Adam’s expulsion from Eden.” – R. H. CHARLES, D. D., Prof of Biblical Greek.)

In the book of Enoch 4:25 we read that “he burnt the incense of the sanctuary, even sweet spices, acceptable before YAHWEH, on the Mount.”

In the book of Tobit and Wisdom of Solomon burning a fish’s liver and incense delivered God’s servants from destructive demons and forces.


Free-will Thanksgiving/Praise Offerings (not sacrifices), with fruit of the lips

The free-will offerings are not the sacrifice offerings. These were extra always offered on top called the Thanks (Eucharistic) offerings. These thanksgiving/praise the offerings are what God said He takes most pleasure in, rather than the burnt offerings for sin etc. These were also called vow and praise offerings. These had always the fruit of the lips, declaring and confessing, thanking and praising Him with what you’re thankful for and what He is doing. Some of the thank offerings included a pledge what one would do if God did indeed provide, and so they “paid their vows” as the Psalms of David continually elaborate on this. Paul greatly encouraged everyone to offer the thanksgiving offerings by fire at the altars. These kinds of offerings were for the people to share together in a community meal. These were often partially burned on the altar, and partially consumed, as were the festal / agape meals (or feasts) held in communion of the church. At any Hebrew gathering (festive meal) “in the ekklesia/congregation” it was initiated with the bread and wine that was offered that day in thanksgiving.

The altar wasn’t only at Jerusalem, but as Malachi 1:11 tells us the incense and communion is offered in “every place”.

Paul spent much of his time in the Synagogues all across the Roman world (every city) where also yes, they offered all the offerings on altars(Deut 12:5-7 and 15) set up wherever He is placing His name. This included offering the “Thanksgiving Offering of Bread and Wine” that is shared with the people, as it says they should do/offer (and Christ said “this(thanksgiving) do/offer in remembrance of Me”).

In Hebrews chapter 13 Paul compares the higher offerings Christ offers for us, which can hardly be compared. However, in conclusion he maintained that it’s good to never forget to do the physical communion (the standard offerings):

Heb 13:15-16 “15 By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name. 16 But to do good and to communicate forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.”

 This sacrifice of thanksgiving (a sacrifice that included the fruit of the mouth) was often encouraged throughout the Bible:

Psa 107:22 “And let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving, and declare his works with rejoicing.”

Psa 50:14 22-23 “Offer unto God thanksgiving; and pay thy vows unto the most High:

… 22 Now consider this, ye that forget God, lest I tear you in pieces, and there be none to deliver. 23 Whoso offereth praise(thank offering) glorifieth me: and to him that ordereth his conversation aright will I shew the salvation of God.”

Psa 56:12 “Thy vows are upon me, O God: I will render praises(thank offerings) unto Thee.”

1Cor 10:30-31 “For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks. Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do(offer/celebrate), do(offer) all to the glory of God.”

Like all the firstfruits of any kind of food it was brought to the temple. Also any animal slaughter for food, killed in the vicinity of the Temple areas had to be killed at the altar as an offering to YAHWEH. If the blood was not shed there, but anywhere else (besides hunting) it would bring a major crime of “blood guilt” upon the person(Lev 17:4,8,9). So you can bet they made sure all were offered to YAHWEH at any time an animal was killed in that vacinity. Also any breads would likely be blessed at the Temple first, if not by it’s firstfruits, the bread itself blessed at the Temple with declarations of praise (thanksgiving). This was the “communion” or “agape” bread and wine in abundance that was readily available to be shared for ceremonial gatherings of other Hebrews. It had no expiration date like the meats which had to be eaten within a day. The thank and free will offerings ALWAYS included the wine offering as per Numbers Chapter 15. It could also include leavened bread, as long as the leavened doesn’t touch any of the meat offerings.

In the book of Acts it tells us they were partaking of the daily Agape meals of the Temple (Just as Paul indicated in 1Cor 10 and 11).

Acts 2:46-47 “continuing daily with one accord in the Temple, and breaking bread from house to house did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart, praising God and having favor with all the people. And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved.”

In verse 45 it says they sold everything and relying on true miraculous Christian providence “had no possessions… but …all things in common” as today we have many orders with vows of poverty. They gave up their whole lives, giving all they had to the poor and participated in full time ministry there at the Temple and surrounding houses. They  were truly “living off the Gospel” as Paul had told in reference to the priests who had no possessions but ate of the sacrifices that were being offered. “[1Co 9:14 KJV] “14 Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the Gospel should live of the Gospel.”

As stated in Acts Chapter 4, everyone saw the great power of the resurrection working in the Apostles so willingly laid down all their possessions at the feet of the Apostles, who distributed these to all in need. In Acts 6:4 it tells us why they had to hire Stephen to full time handle the distributions to the widows (of the agape and tithes/other offerings), it says it was so that the Disciples can “4 give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word.”

Carrying down to the later centuries we see these distributions better cataloged in the Apostles Didsacalia and the officiating the portions used for the holy communion, which was burned partially on the altars of Christendom (as that pure offering mentioned in Malachi 1:11) and the smoke would accompany the Eucharist.

This may give more meaning for Christ’s Apostles to pray for their “daily bread” in such contexts.

A portion of these thank offerings (free will offerings) is burned to YAHWEH and a portion of it is given back to the people to share (with clean people) in the communion. Normally (but not required) these included sin offerings, and as Paul said “the ashes of a heiffer would purify your flesh”.

Paul ensured to say that the Soul and Spirit is cleaned by the blood of Christ. Also that the blood of bulls, goats, and ashes of a heiffer still does cleanse and purify the physical body, in [Heb 9:13 KJV] “13 For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh:”

Again the physical offerings are not about salvation, but are just one of the “good works”.

And so we see, if it was good enough for the New Testament authors to freely promote the altars of fire to YAHWEH, it still is valid and important for us all.

In the New Testament church, this was a given. In fact, part of the “daily ministration” included distributing all the “daily offerings” to widdows and others, their “daily bread”, the “wine”, and the basic food blessed at the altar, so many lambs had to be eaten the same day for example. Then there were all the other items, including any sort of firstfruits, and the tithes of money also, and other items that were blessed at the altar:

[Act 6:1, 4 KJV] “1 And in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplied, there arose a murmuring of the Grecians against the Hebrews, because their widows were neglected in the daily ministration. … 4 But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word.”

In practical application we praise Him in the Morning Service, and offering the prayers of thanksgiving and praise for the incense as found in the Didache Liturgy listed in this document.


Communion Fire in the Early Church “A Live Coal”


At His Table We Feast on His Glory as the only begotten of the Father Full of Grace and Truth

In Communion a great flame descends upon us as Christ

Communion Fire in Scripture
Chapter Six

It is interesting “how and when” things begin to come to light in Communion Fire isn’t it? Researching the texts and liturgies found in early Church history we bumped into this illuminating article by Fr. Patrick Reardon connecting the term Communion Fire with ancient Christian writings. Please receive this in the Spirit in which it is intended, “building up your most holy faith praying in the Holy Ghost.”

The Holy Eucharist, a Live Coal
By Fr. Patrick Reardon

Speaking of the Holy Eucharist, the Fathers and early liturgical texts of the Church have recourse to the metaphor of the flaming coal (anthrax, pruna) in reference to the Lord’s body. For instance, with Isaiah 6:7 obviously in mind, The Liturgy of St. James refers to “receiving the fiery coal” (labein to pyrinon anthrax) from the Eucharistic altar. Indeed, even without using this word, those same doctrinal sources regularly appeal to Isaiah’s experience, when they speak of the Holy Eucharist. Thus, in The Liturgy of S. John Chrysostom, when the Christian has received the Holy Communion, the priest tells him: “Lo, this has touched your lips and has taken away your iniquity.” In comparing the sacramental body of Christ to Isaiah’s living coal, these texts testify that the flesh of the risen Christ bears the fire of the Holy Spirit, drawn from the hearth of the heavenly altar.

It is through this purifying and sanctifying coal that we are deified in the Holy Eucharist. Thus, St. John of Damascus wrote, “Let us draw near to Him with burning desire and…let us take hold of the divine coal [tou theiou anthrakos], so that the fire of our longing, fed by the flame of the coal, may purge away our sins and enlighten our hearts. Let us be enkindled by touching this great divine fire, and so come forth as gods” (The Orthodox Faith 4.13).

In addition to the symbolism of the fiery coal from the altar, the Eucharistic bread itself seems naturally to evoke the image of the oven. This image is amply justified in the Epiclesis, the prayer that asks the Father to send down the Holy Spirit to transform the bread and wine into the Lord’s Body and Blood. Rupert of Deutz perceived this truth, when he wrote, “The Virgin conceived Him of the Holy Spirit, who is the eternal fire; and through the same Holy Spirit He offered Himself as a living victim to the living God, as the Apostle says [Ephesians 5:2]. Accordingly, on the altar He is immolated by the same fire. For it is by the operation of the Holy Spirit that the bread becomes the body, and the wine the blood, of Christ” (On Exodus 2.10).

The Divine Liturgy, we may say, is the oven of the Holy Spirit. That grain of wheat, which was sown in the earth on Good Friday, sprang forth as the infinite Paschal harvest and now abides forever in the granary of heaven.

Christ our Lord is not content, however, simply to abide in His glorified body. In this body, Christ can be found in only one place. He is needed, however, in many places, and this is the reason He provided a new, sacramental mode of presence. In the Holy Eucharist, He lives on thousands of altars (Tables, CF) at once, available–edible!–for the myriads of believers who draw near in the fear of God and with faith and love.

In the mystery of the Holy Eucharist, the wheat, which is Christ’s glorified body, is baked in the oven of the Holy Spirit, so that the nutritive energies of God may pass into those who receive Him in faith. Through the cells and sinews of our own flesh there course those divine energies that transform and deify our bodies and souls–our whole being–with the dynamism of immortality–eternal life.

Commenting on the Bread of Life Discourse in John 6, St. Clement of Alexandria plays on the image of fire stimulating the yeast in the dough, as heat raises the sown seed: “Here is observed the sacrament of the bread [to mystikon tou artou], for He says it is His flesh and as manifestly raised up; just as fire raises up the sowing from corruption [ek phthoras kai sporas], so like baked bread it has truly been raised up through fire for the enjoyment of the Church” (The Teacher 1.6).

St. Clement likewise speaks of this sacramentally conferred immortality in connection with the Lord’s blood, which we receive from the Chalice. Recalling, with Leviticus 17:11, that “the life of the flesh is in the blood,” he comments: “To drink of the blood of Jesus means nothing less than to participate in the Lord’s incorruption [tes kyriakes metalabein aphtharsias]. For the Spirit is strength to the Word, just as the blood to the body” (op. cit. 2.2).

This Eucharistic participation in the fire of Spirit is symbolized in the boiling water added to the Chalice right before the reception of Holy Communion. As the deacon pours this water into the blood of Christ, he identifies its symbolism: “The fervor of faith, the fullness of the Holy Spirit.”

Illustration by Elizabeth Wang Code T-01633-OL, ‘The Annunciation’, copyright © Radiant Light 2006, www.radiantlight.org.uk 


What Is the ‘Fervor’ Used during the Liturgy?

Posted on October 21, 2018 by Fr. Andrei Chizhenko

Fervor is boiling water, which is poured into the Chalice after the transmutation of the Holy Gifts. The boiling water is poured into the Blood of Christ. It happens immediately after the altar curtain above the Royal Door is closed and after the priest exclaims, “Let us be attentive! The Holy Gifts for the holy people of God.” These words precede and begin the communion of the faithful, from the clergy in the sanctuary to the flock in the nave. The act of closing the curtain symbolizes the locking of the Lord’s Tomb with a rock, sealing it with the high priest’s seal, and appointing the guards. Similarly, the entrance with the Chalice signifies the Resurrection of Christ.

The words “Let us be attentive! The Holy Gifts for the holy people of God” mean the following: we are called to be extremely attentive to what is happening. The Holy Body and Blood of Jesus Christ are distributed among the holy people, i.e., those Orthodox Christians who have properly prepared to receive them.

After that, the fervor is poured into the Chalice, which is sitting on the Holy Table. The rubrics stipulate the following (according to the Archieratikon): the priest must pour the fervor into the Chalice with care, “with caution so as not to overwhelm the wine, that is, so as there isn’t more water than wine in the Chalice.”

The fervor is first blessed by the priest with the following words, “Blessed is the fervor of Thy saints always, now and ever and unto the ages of ages. Amen.” Then it is poured into the Chalice so as to make the sign of the cross, with the words, “The fervor of faith, full of the Holy Spirit. Amen.”

These prayers point at the following theological symbolism of the fervor…

The first symbol is mentioned by Archimandrite Cyprian (Kern), a renowned liturgical scholar, in his book titled The Eucharist. He quotes Saint Niketas Stethatos, who was St Symeon the New Theologian’s disciple, “… Also, when we drink his living and hot Blood mixed with water that poured out of his side, we are cleansed of every sin and filled with the Spirit, who is warm, for, as you see, the Blood that we drink from this Cup is as warm as the blood that poured from the Lord’s body…” That is, the fervor symbolizes the life in the Blood of Christ — the life for the entire world. On the other hand, it is our participation in the act of Redemption, as if we were standing by the Cross at the time of Crucifixion and if the Lord’s heart was still beating…

The other image is mentioned by Holy Righteous Nicholas Kavasilas, a Greek liturgical scholar of the 14th century: “The hot water was touched by fire, and as such it reminds of the Holy Spirit, who is like fire (Acts 2:3-4) and who is said to resemble water (Is. 44:3; John 7:38-39). It is poured into the Chalice after the consummation of the Sacrament and the consecration of the Holy Gifts to signify the descent of the Holy Spirit onto the Church. The Holy Spirit descended onto the Church after the slaughter and subsequent resurrection of Christ, which marked the fulfillment of the act of salvation. The Holy Spirit always descends after the consummation (of the sacrifice), for the Comforter comes to those who partake of the Sacrifice with dignity.”

That is why we should purify ourselves by fasting, prayer, and confession in order to reach for the Chalice of Christ with the fear of God and to partake of the Body and the Blood of Christ regularly, so as to bring the saving and life-giving fervor, sanctified by the Holy Spirit, into our human nature corrupted by sin.

Translated by The Catalog of Good Deeds

First Century Founders of our Celtic(Hebrew) Choir

Our choir was founded in the first century by Saint Ilid. He was one of the “men of Israel” who accompanied the British King Bran on his return from Rome. Ilid, in the “Genealogy of the Saints,” is said to have converted many of the Cymry to the Christian faith. In the “Genealogy of Iestyn ab Gwrant,” he is represented as having arrived from Rome at the request of Eurgain, the daughter of Cardoc, and as having become chief instructor of the Cymry in the Christian faith. He is said to have regulated or systemized a choir of twelve saints, which she had established near the church, afterwards called the church of Illtud, and to have subsequently retired to the Isle of Avalon (Glastonbury), where he died, and was buried.

If you are to pray in covenantal understanding with us, you will know the Judean, Aaronic and Israelite ancestry of the Celts. You’ll be singing with those who stand for theh original church built by Christ that this refers to. Standing together with the first century celtic culdee church built by Yahshua and the early apostles in Great Britain. Start your day out right united in prayer and song with your Celtic Culdee global choir ring! For more information on our ancient heritage as Culdee Hebrew Priests contact marshalofsalem@yahoo.com.

Some suggested readings are:

“Celt Druid and Culdde”, by Isabel Elder

“The Celtic Church in Britain”, by Leslie Harding

For your edification we’re including thirty five of the more well known and confirmed founders of our Celtic choir in Britain. As is taken from official histories.

1.St. Joseph, the Apostle of Great Britain, received twelve hides of Glastonbury from King Avarigus (cousin of Caractacus). After the death of Aristobulus (Bishop of Britain)AD58, St. Joseph of Arimathea was re-consecrated by St. Philip, now with the title “Chief Priest in Britain”. St. Paul joined St. Joseph in Britain, starting in the year 60AD. First Century Welsh, Judean, Persian, Egyptian, Spanish and Roman records describe his exploits commanding the Nazarene Galilean and Essenic “blue tunic army”, or the Culdee Priesthood. His coat of arms form the St. George Cross of Great Britain. Morgan’s history said after being exiled to Gaul with Lazarus and Mary Magdelene, he was joined by forty more from Jerusalem before setting sail to Britain. Alfwold’s history (authenticated by Vatican manuscripts of the archives retrieved by Emperor Theodosius at the palace of Pilate at Jerusalem) says Joseph came with six hundred companions upon a ship built by King Solomon together with the duke of the Medes, called Nacianus, formerly baptized by Joseph in the city Saram, with the king of it, called Mordraius, who valiantly killed a king of North Wales, who held Joseph prisoner, after which he and his companions preached in the area, and were granted the twelve hides by King Avarigus. Comm. Aug 31.

2. St. Andrew the Holy Apostle is one of the most well known saints of Britain (and Scotland). His assistant was Aristobulus, the first Bishop of Britain. The Scottish Declaration of Arbroath records St. Andrew as directly converting the Scottish nation to Christianity (as was delivered to the Vatican with the seals of all the Barons during the wars of Robert the Bruce, William Wallace, Edward I, and the third overturn of the Stone of Scone, King David’s literal throne). The Eastern Orthodox claim St. Andrew has precedence because he was the first Apostle chosen by Jesus (Yahshua). Comm. Nov 30.
3. St. James the just, the brother of Jesus, Flavius Dexter, quoting the ecclesiastical Benedictine historian, Cressy, in his "Church History of Brittany," states: "In the one and fortieth year of Christ (A.D.41) St. James, returning out of Spain, visited Gaule and Britain."
     Other records confirm this date of his first visit to Britain, and some records claim he was present at the death of Mary at Avalon(Glastonbury), A.D.48. James was the first Bishop of Jerusalem, calling together the first Apostolic Church there. This is the first Council of the Appointed on record. The next Council wasn’t called together until Constantine the Great, three hundred years later.

4. St. Bran the Blessed was born in Judea, and was a high King of Britain. He was consecrated by St. Paul as Bishop of Siluria, replacing his title of ArchDruid. “the St. Ynys Prydain, or Pedigrees of the Saints of Britain” agrees with the Welsh Triads in attributing the first introduction of Christianity to Bran. (The Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the Cymry; Or the Ancient British Church, J. Williams, M.A., Rector of Llanymowddwy.) He married Joseph’s daughter Anna, founding another Levitical line for Celtic priests. Comm. on numerous 3rd-5th Century Saints festivals.

5. St. Nacianus, duke of Medes was baptized by Joseph in the city of Saram, with the king of it, called Mordraius. He valiantly killed a king of North Wales, who kept Joseph a prisoner. He assisted Josph in his preaching efforts in the time of Arviragus." (Brit. Eccl. Antiq. p. 8, &c. Alford.)

6. St. Arwystli Hen (Aristobulus the old), one of the seventy elders. He is called a “man of Italy” in the Welsh Triads, as coming over together with King Bran’s company from Rome to Britain. Paul also saluted him in his epistle to the Romans.  He was sent as an apostle to the Britons and was the first bishop in Britain, and is buried at Glastonbury. Comm. Mar. 15.

7. Saint Anna of Arimathea the Prophetess, daughter of Joseph, of the Levitical/Aaronic lines of Zadok. Feastday: March 17

8.  St. Genuissa, daughter of Joseph of Arimathea, married King Arvarigus, and is ancestress of a long line of Welsh (Hebrew) Saints.

9. St. Simon Zelotes the Holy Apostle “..traversed all Mauritania, and the regions of the Africans, preaching Christ. He was at last crucified, slain, and buried in Britain (St. Dorotheus, Synod. The Seventy Apostles; “the Synopsis” ad Sim Zelot.) One Menology assigns the martyrologies of Zelotes to Persia in Asia, but others agree in stating he was martyred in Britain. Of these the principal authority is Dorotheus, Bishop of Tyre during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantia (300 CE). He visited Britain and traversed to Caistor, modern-day Lincolnshire where he was martyred. Comm. Oct. 28.

10. St. Lazarus of Bethany, first bishop of Gaul, (Marseilles)
Lazarus’ life is identified at Avalon(Glastonbury) in the Celtic MSS, known as The Triads (Laws) of Lazarus.  (Capgrave, De Sancto Joseph ab Arimathea, quoting ancient manuscript and the Book of the Holy Grail, quoted in Jowett 163)  “And it was from here that Lazarus, returned to Gaul, the area of Provence, France with Mary and Martha.”  In the ancient church records of Lyon it states, ‘Lazarus returned to Gaul from Britain to Marseilles, taking with him Mary Magdalene and Martha.  He was the first appointed bishop.  He died there seven years later.’   (Jowett, George F. The Drama of the Lost Disciples, Covenant Publ., Co, 8 Blades Court, Deodar Road, London SW15 2NU, 1961, 1993, pg 164) Comm. Jul. 29

11. St. Philip the Holy Apostle, brought and sent many missionaries to and from Britain, from his base in Gaul(France), at Chartres the ancient Druidic headquarters. Having been banished together with Lazarus, James, and Joseph on boats, eventually landing at Marseilles where now lay the tombs of St. Mary, Margaret and Lazarus. He consecrated Joseph of Arimathea as Bishop of Britain, upon the death of Aristobulus. Cardinal Baronius wrote:
"We have said in our notes to the Roman Martyrology that, 'to the
Galatians' must be corrected in the place of 'to the Gauls'[Modern France]." (ie early French St. Epiphanius, A.D. 315-40. More confirmable references in “Drama of the Lost Disciples” by Jowett) Comm. May 1.

12. St. Peter the Holy Apostle, History records at least three visits of Peter to Britain. On his last visit St. Peter appeared on the very spot where once stood the old British church of Lambedr (St. Peter’s), where stands the present Abbey of St. Peter, Westminster. The legends on public display at St. Peter’s at Cornhill relate to us the historic founding of the church by King Lucius in honour of Peter’s ministry efforts at Britain. Peter was expelled from Rome by Claudius in 40AD, where he returned to his family and fellow exiles in Great Britain. Comm. June 29.

13. St. Linus was a son of Cardoc, and Grandon of Bran. Linus the Prince of the Silures opted to stay in Rome after his father’s parole ended. He was consecrated by St. Paul and St. Peter as the first Bishop of Rome. Comm. Sept. 23.

14. St. Paul the Holy Apostle. Paul intimately mentioning the British Royal family members in his letters, and numerous records exist of his residence in Siluria, and burial at Glastonbury. The great historian Venerable Bede recorded Paul’s burial. Get the extensive book “St. Paul in Britain” by R.W. Morgan. Comm. Nov. 26.
15. St. Eigra (AKA Eurgain) of Llan Ilid, was sister of Caractacus and wife of Salog, Lord of Caer Salog (Salisbury), the first female St. in Britain (Morgan, History of Great Britain). She founded the first Christian choir at Llan. From this choir (or Cor-Eugain) issued many of the most eminent teachers and missionaries of Christianity down to the tenth century, as catalogued in “Genealogies of the Saints of Britain”, listing from “Illid the Hebrew”, St. Illid, who came with Bran the Blessed from Rome at the request of Eurgain to be the chief instructor of the choir. She is ancestor of St. Helen (mother of Constantine) and feast date is June 29th.

16. St. Rufus Pudens married the British princess Claudia (Gladys). His home in Rome was called Palatium Britannica, also the previous residence of British royals, and house of worship. Father of Praxedes and Pudentiana. He was clothed with baptism by the apostles, and watched and kept is robe pure and without wrinkle to the crown of a blameless life. Comm. May 17.

17. St. Pudentiana, the virgin, of the most illustrious descent, daughter of Pudens, and disciple of the holy apostle St. Paul. Comm. May 17.

18. St. Trophimus was sent to Gaul by Joseph and, under the direction of Philip, replaced Martha at Arles. He was consecrated the first Bishop of Arles and there performed an outstanding service. He was energetic, practical and an intelligent organizer. His Christianizing endeavours embraced a large area which formed the district of Narbonne. He became the first Metropolitan of the Narbonne, with Arles as his Bishopric. For centuries it continued to be a prominent stronghold of the Chrisian faith in Gaul.

19. St. Mary Magdelene of Bethany was named among the twelve companions who arrived with Joseph at Glastonbury.  As we have seen, Trophimus joined with Martha at Arles, where she later left for Tarascon. Maximin is described as joining with Mary Magdalene at Aix where both spent out their
life. Both died a natural death. Maximin was the first Bishop of Aix, and there are found numerous memorials and relics of Maximin, and particularly of Mary Magdalene. The area is saturated with her memory. Mary's classic beauty and her rich voice, extolled in reverence and pleasure by all who knew her, endeared her so deeply to the hearts of the people among whom she laboured that she was adored as a Saint before she died. Her undying devotion to her Lord throbbed through her teachings of the Word. The most hardened soul melted to her preaching, and she converted, as we are told, 'multitudes to the faith'. The ancient documents resound with her glory. Comm. Jul. 22.

20. St. Ilid one of the “men of Israel” who accompanied Bran on his return from Rome. Ilid, in the “Genealogy of the Saints,” is said to have converted many of the Cymry to the Christian faith. In the “Genealogy of Iestyn ab Gwrant,” he is represented as having arrived from Rome at the request of Eurgain, the daughter of Cardoc, and as having become chief instructor of the Cymry in the Christian faith. He is said to have regulated or systemized a choir of twelve saints, which she had established near the church, afterwards called the church of Illtud, and to have subsequently retired to the Isle of Avalon (Glastonbury), where he died, and was buried.

21. St. Cyndav was named in the welsh triads of the saints chronicle him as a “man of Israel” who accompanied King Bran, Mawan, Ilid, and others who returned from Rome as a missionaries to Britain.

22. St. Mawan, son of Cyndav, is chronicled as a “man of Israel” who accompanied King Bran, Cyndav, Ilid, Hid, and others who returned from Rome as a missionaries to Britain.

23. St. Mansuetus, a Caledonian Briton ; disciple of St. Peter at Rome,
and afterwards bishop of Toul in Lorrain. Comm. Sept. 3. Died
A. D. 89.

24. St. Pontius Pilate was a British educated Roman ruler of Judea. Shortly after the crucifixion became a Confessor, St. and martyr of the church he helped found in England. In the Acts of Pilate or Gospel of Nicodemus are his letters and interactions with the British Royal family, and Joseph of Arimathea. His long association with Joseph of Arimathea stretched back to when Joseph was in the Roman army for seven years, of which he achieved the rank of “de curio”. His comm. June 15.

25. St. Claudia, a daughter of Caractacus, and the wife of Pudens. Comm. Aug. 7. Died at Sabinum, a city of Umbria in Italy A. D. 110.

26. St. Phagan ; successor to Joseph in his Prefecture at Glastonbury.

27. St. Sidonis, together with Saturnius, and Cleon taught and supported other missionaries in Gaul, then returned to Britain.

28. St. Parmena, a disciple of Joseph, was appointed first Bishop of Avignon.

29. St. Drennalus, helped Joseph found the church at Morlaix. He was then appointed to Treguier as its first Bishop.

30. St. Beatus was born of noble parents in Britain and at the school of Avalon was converted and baptized. He became a missionary to the Helvi in the mountain of modern Switzerland and became the founder of the Helvetian church. His death occurred in the cell, still shown at Underseven, on the Lake of Thun, in AD 96. (Theatre. Magn. Britan., lib. vi. p. 9).

31. St. Mansuetos was born in Hibernia and in his youth was sent to the schools of Britain.  There he was converted and baptized in Avalon and was later sent from Rome with Clement (Clementus Romanus) to preach the Gospel in Gaul. “He founded the Lotharingian Church, fixing his mission at Toul, where after extending his labors to Illyria. He was eventually martyred in 110 CE.” ( Pantaleon, De Viris Illus. Germaniae, pars. I; Guliel. Eisengren, cent. 2, p. 5; Petrus Mersaeus, De Sanctis German.; Franciscus Gulliman, Helvetiorum Historia, lib. i. c. 15; Petrus de Natalibus, Episcop. Regal. Tallensis.)

32. St. Marcellus, a noble Briton, was also converted at Avalon and later sent as a missionary to the region of Tongres.  He was the founder of the early Christian Church in Gaul and appointed its bishop at Treves.  This church and diocese for many centuries was the chief church and authority in the early Gallic church.

33. St. Cyllin Caradog ab Bran Fendigaid, lived at the close of the first century and is accredited as the first to normalize naming of infants in wales, where before the practice was to name after maturity and faculties developed.

34. St. Beatus, who was converted in Britain, received his education at Avalon (Glastonbury) afterwards a disciple of St. Peter at Rome. Was baptized by St. Barnabas, the brother of Aristobulus, sent in advance by St. Paul to Britain. He is refered to in Scripture as Joses, the Levite. His first name was Suetonius. He became the apostle of the Helvetians. Comm. May 9. Died A. D. 110, at Underseven in Helvetia.

35. St. Dyfan, comm. April 8th.


The vast histories of saints in England that predated Augustine’s arrival are documented in more of a long form from a plethora of historical authorities. Each of these in short form have been totally accepted in all mainstream circles of Christianity.

This list is taken from official martyrologies of all churches combined into one. Also from incontrovertible histories recorded in the ancient Welsh Triads and confirmed in the Celtic bards. That is in addition to the many Roman, Eastern Orthodox, and Celtic rite calendars and histories that are carefully recorded and accepted worldwide in numerous mainstream circles as quoted from the highest credible historians.

Many of these British based Saints are honoured worldwide for their work in Britian before Augustine. To prove this, more than 500 foreign churches on the Continent were already dedicated these British Church leaders before before Augustine ever visited England. Today’s Greek and Eastern Orthodox observances have far more first and second century British in their Calendars than Rome, yet the Welsh, British and Irish calendars have kept Rome on track to honour a good portion of these still up until today.

The early church councils had on numerous occasions inferred that Britain had supremacy over other churches, who only considered the Pope of Rome as an equal Bishop. All Papal bulls made with England (in example for Glastonbury, only reaffirmed the earlier texts originating from Glastonbury, without adding anything). This list does not include the hundred or so Irish saints which also predate Augustine, (as in the Martyrologies of Ignus the Culdee). We’re also not (yet) including a great number of the Welsh saints from 1-6th centuries.

This short version of Celtic Saints is compiled by the Reverend Stephen Michael, a Hebrew Culdee, written for the edification of other Clerics of the Culdee at Glastonbury and abroad for the honour of our one true original church that has pre-eminence over all other pretended authorities.

It is with much regret that under limited resource, about 200 other pre-7th Century Celtic saints have not been catalogued in this first version. However we have a “long version” project underway which will include these for an explanded 500 Celtic Saints before Augustine! That will include not only the Irish catalogs, and the Welsh, but also from the earlier Celtic onclaves of Gaul. The purchases and negotiations for such manuscripts, as well as able translators are currently in process of being acquired.

A communion or missionary bond is welcomed for a joint projects between the various branches of the Celtic Culdee, whether Irish, Scottish, English, Welsh, Gaulic, or scattered among the nations under other names as it was prophetically foretold of our Hebrew priesthood that was setup by Jeremiah (in cira 500BC) at Ireland.



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